Modelling the spatial distribution of tree species with fragmented populations from abundance data
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Spatial distribution modelling can be a useful tool for elaborating conservation strategies for tree species characterized by fragmented and sparse populations. We tested five statistical models—Support Vector Regression (SVR), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Gaussian processes with radial basis kernel functions (GP), Regression Tree Analysis (RTA) and Random Forests (RF)—for their predictive performances. To perform the evaluation, we applied these techniques to three tree species for which conservation measures should be elaborated and implemented: one Mediterranean species (Quercus suber) and two temperate species (Ilex aquifolium and Taxus baccata). Model evaluation was measured by MSE, Goodman-Kruskal and sensitivity statistics and map outputs based on the minimal predicted area criterion. All the models performed well, confirming the validity of this approach when dealing with species characterized by narrow and specialized niches and when adequate data (more than 40–50 samples) and environmental and climatic variables, recognized as important determinants of plant distribution patterns, are available. Based on the evaluation processes, RF resulted the most accurate algorithm thanks to bootstrap-resampling, trees averaging, randomization of predictors and smoother response surface.
KeywordsIlex aquifolium Gaussian processes with radial basis kernel functions Multivariate adaptive regression splines Potential areas Random forest Regression tree analysis Quercus suber Spatial modelling Support vector regression Taxus baccata
Gaussian processes with radial basis kernel functions
Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines
Regression Tree Analysis
Support Vector Regression
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