Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 351–361 | Cite as

Molecular Genetical Characterization of Vernalization Genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 in Spring Wheat Germplasm from Russia and Adjacent Regions

  • A. B. ShcherbanEmail author
  • M. V. Emtseva
  • T. T. Efremova


We characterized a representative set of 42 spring wheat cultivars from Russia and adjacent regions for 3 Vrn loci. The 42 genotypes were screened, along with 3 genotypes of known Vrn genes, using previously published genome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed for detecting the presence or absence of dominant or recessive alleles of the major Vrn loci: Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. The dominant promoter duplication allele Vrn-A1a was present in 28 of 42 cultivars, whereas the promoter deletion allele Vrn-A1b was present in only 1 of the Russian cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Pyrothrix 28’). The intron deletion allele Vrn-A1c was not present in any tested cultivar. The dominant Vrn-D1 allele was found in 1 of the cultivars. Thirteen of the spring wheat cultivars tested here carry the recessive vrn-A1 allele. However, for 6 cultivars, there were inconsistencies between PCR data and genetic segregation analysis, showing the presence of the dominant Vrn-A1 gene. No inconsistencies were found in the case of Vrn-B1 locus. A new combination of specific primers allowed amplification of the common Vrn-B1a allele along with the novel Vrn-B1c allele, which was present in 17 of the studied cultivars (40%). Twenty-five cultivars (59%) had dominant alleles of Vrn-A1a and Vrn-B1 in combination. We showed the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars with monogenic control of vernalization in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. In the absence of epistatic effects of Vrn-A1, this allele causes an earlier heading time compared to Vrn-B1a, thereby avoiding early fall frosts. Suggestions are made concerning the origin and distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele among Russian spring wheats.


vernalization wheat cultivar gene allele polymerase chain reaction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

42976_2012_40030351_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (29 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 228 KB.


  1. Cutforth, H.W., Campbell, C.A., Brandt, S.A., Hunter, J. et al. 1990. Development and yield of Canadian western red spring and Canada prairie spring wheats as affected by delayed seeding in the brown and dark brown soil zones of Zaskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 70: 639–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dorofeev, V.F., Udachin, R.A., Semenova, L.V. et al. 1987. Wheat of World. Agro-industrial Publishing House, St. Petersburg, Russia. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Efremova, T.T., Arbuzova, V.S., Leonova, I.N., Makhmudova, K. 2011. Multiple allelism in the Vrn-B1 locus of common wheat. Cereal Res. Commun. 39:12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fu, D., Szucs, P., Yan, L., Helguera, M., Skinner, J.S., von Zitzewitz, J. et al. 2005. Large deletions within the first intron in VRN-1 are associated with spring growth habit in barley and wheat. Mol. Gen. Genomics 273:54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goncharov, N.P. 2002. Comparative Genetics of Wheats and their Relatives. Siberian University Publishing House, Novosibirsk, Russia. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Goncharov, N.P. 2004. Response to vernalization in wheat: Its quantitative or qualitative nature. Cereal Res. Commun. 32:323–330.Google Scholar
  7. Goncharov, N.P., Shitova, I.P. 1999. The inheritance of growth habit in old local varieties and landraces of hexaploid wheat. Russian J. of Genetics 35:386–392.Google Scholar
  8. Il’ina, L.G. 1996. Selection of the Saratov Wheats. Saratov University Publishing House, Saratov, Russia. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. Iqbal, M., Navabi, A., Yang, R.C., Salmon, D.F., Spaner, D. 2007a. Molecular characterization of vernalization response genes in Canadian spring wheat. Genome 50:511–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iqbal, M., Navabi, A., Salmon, D.F., Yang, R.C. et al. 2007b. Genetic analysis of flowering and maturity time in high latitude spring wheat. Euphytica 154:207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McIntosh, R.A., Dubcovsky, J., Rogers, W.J., Morris, C., Appels, R., Xia, X.C. 2010. Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. (supplement) Available from the Komugi and GrainGenes websites.Google Scholar
  12. Milec, Z., Tomkova, L., Sumikova, T., Pankova, K. 2011. A new multiplex PCR test for the determination of Vrn-B1 alleles in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Mol. Breeding DOI: 10.1007/s11032-011-9621–7.Google Scholar
  13. Moiseeva, E.A., Goncharov, N.P. 2007. Genetic control of the spring habit in old local cultivars and landraces of common wheat from Siberia. Genetika 43:469–476. (in Russian)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Morgounov, A., Zykin, V.A., Sereda, G.A., Urazaliev, R.A. 2001. Siberian and North Kazakhstan wheat pool. In: Bonjean, A.P., Angus, W.J. (eds), The World Wheat Book. A History of Wheat Breeding. Lavoisier Publishing, London, Paris, New York, pp. 755–772.Google Scholar
  15. Plaschke, J., Ganal, M.W., Roeder, M.S. 1995. Detection of genetic diversity in closely related bread wheat using microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:1001–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Porter, J.R., Gawith, M. 1999. Temperatures and the growth and development of wheat: A review. Eur. J. Agron. 10:23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pugsley, A.T. 1971. Agenetic analysis of spring-winter habit of growth in wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 22:21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pugsley, A.T. 1972. Additional genes inhibiting winter habit in wheat. Euphytica 21:547–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Santra, D.K., Santra, M., Allan, R.E., Campbell, K.G., Kidwell, K.K. 2009. Genetic and molecular characterization of vernalization genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 in spring wheat germplasm from the Pacific Northwest Region of the USA. Plant Breeding 128:576–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shcherban, A.B., Efremova, T.T., Salina, E.A. 2011. Identification of a new Vrn-B1 allele using two near-isogenic wheat lines with difference in heading time. Mol. Breeding DOI: 10.1007/s11032011-9581-y.Google Scholar
  21. Stelmakh, A.F. 1993. Genetic effects of Vrn genes on heading date and agronomic traits in bread wheat. Euphytica 65:53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stelmakh, A.F. 1998 Genetic systems regulating flowering response in wheat. Euphytica 100:359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Trevaskis, B., Hemming, M.N., Dennis, E.S., Peacock, W.J. 2007. The molecular basis of vernalization induced flowering in cereals. Trends Plant Sci. 12:352–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G. et al. 2006. The wheat and barley vernalization gene Vrn-3 is an orthologue of FT. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:19581–19586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yan, L., Helguera, M., Kato, K., Fukuyama, S., Sherman, J., Dubcovsky, J. 2004. Allelic variation at the VRN-1 promoter in polyploidy wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 109:1677–1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yan, L., Loukojanov, A., Tranquillo, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. 2003. Positional cloning of wheat vernalization gene VRN1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:6263–6268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yoshida, T., Nishida, H., Zhu, J., Nitcher, R., Distelfeld, A. et al. 2010. Vrn-D4 is a vernalization gene located on the centromeric region of chromosome 5D in hexaploid wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:543–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang, X.K., Xia, X.C., Xiao, Y.G., Dubcovsky, J., He, Z.H. 2008. Allelic variation at the vernalization genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3 in Chinese common wheat cultivars and their association with growth habit. Crop Sci. 48:458–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. B. Shcherban
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. V. Emtseva
    • 1
  • T. T. Efremova
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Cytology and Genetics (ICG)Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations