Prediction of Plant Height by Allometric Relationships in Field-Grown Wheat

Abstract

Crop simulation models use allometric relationships to predict plant height from vegetative characteristics. The objective of this study was to find relationships between plant height (PH) and number of leaves on main stem (NLMS), stem dry weight (SDW) (g plant−1) and total vegetative components (leaves and stems) dry weight (TVDW) (g plant−1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). For this purpose, an experiment was conducted using seven wheat cultivars including two durum wheat cultivars (Arya and Taro) and five bread wheat cultivars (Darya, Kuhdasht, Shiroudi, Tajan and Zagros) under irrigated and rainfed conditions during 2008–2009 at Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Sampling was started from beginning of tillering and continued until maturity. A segmented nonlinear regression model was used to describe allometric relationships between PH and the vegetative characteristics. The results showed that there was no significant difference between cultivars and the two conditions for allometric relationships, so one equation was usable for all cultivars under both irrigated and rainfed conditions. Significant relationships were found between PH and NLMS (R2 = 0.94), SDW (R2 = 0.95) and TVDW (R2 = 0.95). These equations can be used for estimation of PH in simulation models of wheat.

Abbreviations

NLMS:

number of leaves on main stem

PH:

plant height

SDW:

stem dry weight

TVDW:

total vegetative components dry weight

References

  1. Akram-Ghaderi, F., Soltani, A. 2007. Leaf area relationships to plant vegetative characteristics in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown in a temperate sub-humid environment. Int. J. Plant Prod. 1:63–71.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., Smith, M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Food and Irrigation Drainage Paper 300 (56):1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bonser, S.P., Aarsseh, L.W. 2009. Interpreting reproductive allometry: Individual strategies of allocation explain size-dependent reproduction in plant populations. Plant Ecol. Evol. Systemat. 11:31–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Budak, N., Baenziger, P.S., Eskridge, K.M., Baltensperger, D., Moreno-Sevilla, B. 1995. Plant height response of semi-dwarf and nonsemi-dwarf wheat to the environment. Crop Sci. 35:447–451.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Confalonieri, R., Bregaglio, S., Rosenmund, A.S., Acutis, M., Savin, I. 2011. A model for simulating the height of rice plants. Eur. J. Agron. 34:20–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gardner, F.P., Pearce, R.B., Mitchell, R.L. 1985. Physiology of Crop Plants. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA, USA, pp. 187–208.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Han, J.R. 1973. Visual qualification of wheat development. Agron. J. 65:116–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hodges, T., Evans, D.W. 1990. Light interception model for estimating the effects of row spacing on plant competition in maize. J. Prod. Agricul. 3:190–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Lenton, J.R., Heddon, P., Gale, M.D. 1987. Gibberellins insensitivity and development in wheat-consequences for development. In: Hoad, C.V., Lenton, J.R., Jackson, M.B., Atkins, R.K. (eds), Hormone Action in Plant Development. Butterworth, London, UK, pp. 145–160.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Ma, L., Gardener, F.P., Selamat, A. 1992. Estimation of leaf area from leaf and total mass measurements in peanut. Crop Sci. 32:461–471.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Marvel, J.N., Beyrouty, C.A., Gbur, E.E. 1992. Response of soybean growth to root and canopy competition. Crop Sci. 32:797–801.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Nagashima, H., Terashima, I. 1995. Relationships between height, diameter and weight distributions of Chenopodium alum plants in stands: Effects of dimension and allometry. Ann. Bot. 75:181–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Niklas, K.J. 1994. Plant allometry, the scaling of form and process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA, pp. 339–344.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Niklas, K.J. 1995. Plant height and the properties of some herbaceous stem. Ann. Bot. 75:133–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Niklas, K.J. 2004. Plant allometry: is there a grand unifying theory? Biol. Review 79:871–889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Payne, W.A., Went, C.W., Hossner, L.R., Gates, C.E. 1991. Estimating pearl millet leaf area and specific leaf area. Agron. J. 83:937–941.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Pourreza, J., Soltani, A., Rahemi, A., Galeshi, S., Zainali, E. 2007. Allometric relation between plant height and vegetative characteristics in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). J. Agricul. Sci. Natural Resources 14:191–199. (in Persian)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ramos, J.M., Garciadel, M.L.F., Reclade, L. 1983. Dry matter and leaf area relationship in winter barley. Agron. J. 75:308–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Reddy, V.R., Pachepsky, Y.A., Whislers, F.D. 1998. Allometric relationships in field-grown soybean. Ann. Bot. 82:125–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Renard, K.G., Foster, G.R., Weesies, G.A., Porter, J.P. 1991. RUSLE, Revised universal soil loss equation. J. Soil Water Conservation 46:30–33.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Retta, A., Armbrust, D.V., Hagen, L.J., Skidmore, E.L. 2000. Leaf and stem area relationship to masses and their height distributions in native grasses. Agron. J. 92:225–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Robertson, M.J. 1994. Relationships between internode elongation, plant height and leaf appearance in maize. Field Crops Res. 38:135–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. SAS institute Inc. 1989. SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 6, 4th Edn., Vol. 1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Semchenko, M., Zobel, K. 2005. The effect of breeding on allometry and phenotypic plasticity in four varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.). Field Crops Res. 93:151–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Soltani, A. 2009. Mathematical Modeling in Field Crops. JMD Press, Mashhad, Iran, 175 pp. (in Persian)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Soltani, A., Robertson, M.J., Mohammad-Nejad, Y., Rahemi-Karizaki, A. 2006. Modeling chickpea growth and development: Leaf prediction and senescence. Field Crops Res. 138:14–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Weiner, J., Thomas, S.C. 1992. Competition and allometry in three species of annual plants. J. Ecol. 73:648–656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Zadox, J.C., Chang, T.T., Konzak, C.F. 1974. Adecimal code for the growth of cereals. Weed Res. 14:415–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. Bakhshandeh.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bakhshandeh, E., Soltani, A., Zeinali, E. et al. Prediction of Plant Height by Allometric Relationships in Field-Grown Wheat. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 40, 413–422 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.40.2012.3.10

Download citation

Keywords

  • allometric relationships
  • plant height
  • vegetative characteristics
  • wheat