The effect of different chemical insecticides, viz. monocrotophos 36 SL, chlorpyriphos 20 EC, triazophos 40 EC, imidacloprid 200 SL, endosulfan 35 EC, Quinalphos 25 EC, Methyl parathion 50 EC and cartap hydrochloride 4 G on natural enemy fauna and their diversity were studied at different crop growth stages, viz. vegetative, maximum tillering and booting in irrigated rice production system of Punjab, India for two wet seasons. Sampling of natural enemy fauna was done at 3 and 10 days after application. Cartap hydrochloride and endosulfan were safe for the natural enemy fauna among different insecticides tested, while in most of observations chlorpyriphos and methy1 parathion were found to be toxic. Natural enemy diversity was maximum in cartap hydrochloride (1.803–1.943), endosulfan (1.437–1.833) and imidacloprid (1.550–1.847) treated plots at all the three phenophases under study. Least diversity was observed in monocrotophos (1.195–1.335), chlorpyriphos (1.002–1.429) and methyl parathion (0.861–1.522) treated plots.
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Sarao, P.S., Mahal, M.S. Diversity of Natural Enemy under Different Insecticide Regimes in Irrigated Rice Production System of Punjab, India. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 40, 256–266 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.40.2012.2.10