Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 542–551 | Cite as

Molecular Characterization of LMW-GS Genes From C, N, U and Ss Genomes among Aegilops Species

  • S. L. Wang
  • D. Chen
  • G. F. Guo
  • T. Zhang
  • S. S. Jiang
  • X. X. Shen
  • D. Perovic
  • S. ProdanovicEmail author
  • Y. M. YanEmail author
Quality and Utilization


In this work, 9 novel LMW-GS genes (6 LMW-m and 3 LMW-i type) from 4 diploid and 1 tetraploid Aegilops species were amplified and cloned by allelic-specific PCR. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that 7 and 2 LMW-GS had 9 and 7 cysteines, respectively. Four LMW-m type subunits genes had an extra cysteine at the C-terminal III, which could form intermolecular disulphide bonds to extend the chains, and therefore would facilitate to form larger gluten polymers. This suggested that these genes are expected to be used as candidate genes for wheat quality improvement. The correlation between specific N-terminal sequences and a decapeptide deletion in the C-terminal II in LMW-GS encoded by D genome was found. Particularly, if LMW-GS possessed a METRCIPG-N-terminal beginning sequences and a decapeptide (LGQCSFQQPQ) deletion in the C-terminal II, they could be encoded by D genome.


Aegilops species LMW-GS genes N-terminal domain conserved cysteines 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

42976_2012_40040542_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (22 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 21.9 KB.


  1. An, X., Zhang, Q., Yan, Y., Li, Q., Zhang, Y., Wang, A., Pei, Y., Tian, J., Wang, H., Hsam, S.L.K., Zeller, F.J. 2006. Cloning and molecular characterization of three novel LMW-i glutenin subunit genes from cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 113:383–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, O.D., Greene, F.C., Yip, R.E., Halford, N.G., Shewry, P.R., Malpica-Romero, J.M. 1989. Nucleotide sequences of the two high molecular weight glutenin genes from the D-genome of a hexaploid bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. cv. Cheyenne. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:461–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cassidy, B.G., Dvorak, J., Anderson, O.D. 1998. The wheat low-molecular-weight glutenin genes: characterization of six new genes and progress in understanding gene family structure. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:743–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, P., Li, R., Zhou, R.Y., Zhiguo, E., He, G.Y. 2010. Cloning and characterization of novel low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes from two Aegilops species with the C and D genomes. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 57:881–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cloutier, S., Rampitsch, C., Penner, G.A., Lukow, O.M. 2001. Cloning and expression of a LMW-i glutenin gene. J. Cereal Sci. 33:143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dong, L., Zhang, X., Liu, D., Fan, H., Sun, J., Zhang, Z., Qin, H., Li, B., Hao, S., Li, Z., Wang, D., Zhang, A., Ling, H.Q. 2010. New insights into the organization, recombination, expression and functional mechanism of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes in bread wheat. PLoS ONE 5 (10):E13548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Ovidio, R., Masci, S. 2004. The low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits of wheat gluten. J. Cereal Sci. 39:321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gill, B.S., Sharma, C., Raupp, W.J., Browder, L.E., Heachett, J.H., Harvey, T.L., Moseman, J.G., Waines, J.G. 1985. Evaluation of Aegilops species for resistance to wheat powdery mildew, wheat leaf rust, Hessian fly, and greenbug. Plant Dis. 69:314–316.Google Scholar
  9. Gupta, R.B., Singh, N.K., Shepherd, K.W. 1989. The cumulative effect of allelic variation in LMW and HMW glutenin subunits on dough properties in the progeny of two bread wheats. Theor. Appl. Genet. 77:57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gupta, R.B., Paul, J.G., Cornish, G.B., Palmer, G.A., Bekes, F., Rathjen, A.J. 1994. Allelic variation at glutenin subunit and gliadin loci, Glu-1, Glu-3 and Gli-1, of common wheats. I. Its additive and interaction effects on dough properties. J. Cereal Sci. 19:9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harberd, N.P., Bartels, D., Thompson, R.D. 1985. Analysis of the gliadin multigene loci in bread wheat using nullisomic-tetrasomic lines. Mol. Gene Genet. 198:234–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang, X.Q., Cloutier, S. 2008. Molecular characterization and genomic organization of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes at the Glu-3 loci in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 116:953–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ikeda, T.M., Nagamine, T., Fukuoka, H., Yano, H. 2002. Identification of new low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 104:680–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jiang, C.X., Pei, Y.H., Zhang, Y.Z., Li, X.H., Yao, D.N., Yan, Y.M., Hsam, S.L.K., Zeller, F.J. 2008. Molecular cloning and characterization of four novel LMW glutenin subunit genes from Aegilops longissima, Triticum dicoccoides and T. zhukovskyi. Hereditas 145:92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johal, J., Gianibelli, M.C., Rahman, S., Morell, M.K., Gale, K.R. 2004. Characterization of low-molecular-weight glutenin genes in Aegilops tauschii. Theor. Appl. Genet. 109:1028–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kasarda, D.D. 1989. Glutenin structure in relation to wheat quality. In: Pomeranz, Y. (ed.), Wheat is Unique. Am. Assoc. of Cereal Chem, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp.277–302.Google Scholar
  17. Kimber, G., Feldman, M. 1987. Wild Wheat: An Introduction. Spl. Rep. 353. College of Agriculture, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.Google Scholar
  18. Lew, E.J.L., Kuzmicky, D.D., Kasarda, D.D. 1992. Characterization of low molecular weight glutenin subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Cereal Chem. 69:508–515.Google Scholar
  19. Li, X.H., Ma, W.J., Gao, L.Y., Zhang, Y.Z., Wang, A.L., Ji, K.M., Wang, K., Appels, R., Yan, Y.M. 2008. A novel chimeric LMW-GS gene from the wild relatives of wheat Ae. kotschyi and Ae. Juvenalis: Evolution at the Glu-3 loci. Genetics 180: 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li, X.H., Wang, K., Wang, S.L., Gao, L.Y., Xie, X.X., Hsam, S.L.K., Zeller, F.J., Yan, Y.M. 2010. Molecular characterization and comparative transcriptional analysis of LMW-m-type genes from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Aegilops species. Theor. Appl. Genet. 121:845–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Long, H., Wei, Y.M., Yan, Z.H., Baum, B., Nevo, E., Zheng, Y.L. 2005. Classification of wheat low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes and its chromosome assignment by developing LMW-GS group-specific primers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 111:1251–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luo, Z., Chen, F.G., Feng, D.S., Xia, G.M. 2005. LMW-GS genes in Agropyron elongatum and their potential value in wheat breeding. Theor. Appl. Genet. 111:272–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Murray, M., Thompson, W.F. 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 8:4321–4325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pang, B.S., Zhang, X.Y. 2008. Isolation and molecular characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunit Genes 1Bx13 and 1By16 from hexaploid wheat. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 50:329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Payne, P.I. 1987. Genetics of wheat storage proteins and the effect of allelic variation on bread making quality. Ann. Review Plant Physiol. 38:141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Payne, P.I., Corfield, K.G. 1979. Subunit composition of wheat glutenin proteins, isolated by gel filtration in a dissociating medium. Planta 145:83–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pei, Y.H., Wang, A.L., An, X.L., Li, X.H., Zhang, Y.Z., Huang, X.Q., Yan, Y.M. 2007. Characterization and comparative analysis of three low molecular weight glutenin C-subunit genes isolated from Aegilops tauschii. Can. J. Plant. Sci. 87:273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Redaelli, R., Pogna, N.E., Ng, P.K.W. 1997. Effects of prolamins encoded by chromosomes 1B and 1D on the rheological properties of dough in near-isogenic lines of bread wheat. Cereal Chem. 74:102–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sabelli, P.A., Shewry, P.R. 1991. Characterization and organization of gene families at the Gli-1 loci of bread and durum wheats by restriction fragment analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 83:209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shewry, P.R., Thatam, A.S. 1997. Disulphide bonds in wheat gluten proteins. J. Cereal Sci. 25:207–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shewry, P.R., Tatham, A.S., Barro, P., Lazzeri, P. 1995. Biotechnology of breadmaking: Unraveling and manipulating the multi-protein gluten complex. Bio/Technol. 13:1185–1190.Google Scholar
  32. Shewry, P.R., Halford, N.G. 2002. Cereal seed storage proteins: Structures, properties and role in grain utilization. J. Exp. Bot. 53:947–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. van Slageren, M.W. 1994. Wild wheats: A monograph of Aegilops L. and Amblyopyrum (Jaub. et Spach) Eig (Poaceae). Wageningen Agricultural University Wageningen and ICARDA, Aleppo.Google Scholar
  34. Xu, H., Zhang, X.Q., Wang, X.P., Guo, A.G. 2004. Molecular cloning of Agropyron intermedium low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes from a Triticum aestivum-Ag. Intermedium addition line-TAI-13. Acta Bot. Sin. 46:595–602.Google Scholar
  35. Xu, H., Wang, R.J., Shen, X., Zhao, Y.L., Sun, G.L., Zhao, H.X., Guo, A.G. 2006. Functional properties of a new low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene from a bread wheat cultivar. Theor. Appl. Genet. 113:1295–1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yan, Y., Zheng, J., Xiao, Y., Yu, J., Hu, Y., Cai, M., Li, Y., Hsam, S.L.K., Zeller, F.J. 2004. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel y-type Glu-Dt1 glutenin gene of Aegilops tauschii. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108:1349–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yan, Y.M., Jiang, Y., An, X.L., Pei, Y.H., Li, X.H., Zhang, Y.Z., Wang, A.L., He, Z.H., Xia, X.C., Bekes, F., Ma, W.J. 2009. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of HMW glutenin subunit 1By8 gene from Italy pasta wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). J. Cereal Sci. 50:398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhao, H., Wang, R., Guo, A., Hu, S., Sun, G. 2004. Development of primers specific for LMW-GS genes located on chromosome 1D and molecular characterization of a gene from Glu-D3 complex locus in bread wheat. Hereditas 141:193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhao, X.L., Xia, X.C., He, Z.H., Gale, K.R., Lei, Z.S., Appels, R., Ma, W. 2006. Characterization of three low-molecular-weight Glu-D3 subunit genes in common wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 113:1247–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang, Y.Z., Li, X.H., Wang, A.L., An, X.L., Zhang, Q., Pei, Y.H., Gao, L.Y., Ma, W.J., Appels, R., Yan, Y.M. 2008. Novel x-type HMW glutenin genes from Aegilops tauschii and their implications on the wheat origin and evolution mechanism of Glu-D1-1 proteins. Genetics 178:23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2012

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. L. Wang
    • 1
  • D. Chen
    • 1
  • G. F. Guo
    • 1
  • T. Zhang
    • 1
  • S. S. Jiang
    • 1
  • X. X. Shen
    • 1
  • D. Perovic
    • 2
  • S. Prodanovic
    • 3
    Email author
  • Y. M. Yan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Genetics and Biotechnology, College of Life ScienceCapital Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI)QuedlinburgGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations