The impact of high temperature stress, normally encountered during grain development phases in wheat under late sown conditions, was studied by measuring grain growth rate (mg day−1 grain−1), grain yield (g plant−1) in relation to ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity (nmol mg−1 min−1), a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. The experimental material comprised nine genetically diverse homozygous genotypes of spring wheat and their six F1s. These were grown in randomised block design with three replications at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India on two dates of sowing 26th November, 2007 (timely, E1) and 24th December, 2007 (late, E2). The rate of grain growth was greatly reduced as temperature increased in late sown environment. Grain growth rate among the parental genotypes was highest in UP 2425 and cross PBW 343 × PBW 435 in both the environments. Mean ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity was maximum at 14 days after anthesis in timely sown while in late sown the activity was maximum at 21 days after anthesis in PBW 435, EIGN 1 and EIGN 8 and crosses EIGN 8 × UP 2425, EIGN 1 × Raj 3765 and PBW 343 × PBW 435. A significant positive association in both timely and late sown environments was evident between grain yield and grain growth rate, while in late sown environment, strong positive and significant correlation was observed between grain yield and grain growth rate and also between grain growth rate and AGPase activity in crosses PBW 343 ×WH 283, PBW 343 × WH 542 and PBW 343 × PBW 435. This suggested that increase in grain growth rate and AGPase activities resulted in increase in grain yield and have considerable impact on the yield performance of wheat.
Abrol, Y.P., Bagga, A.K., Chakravarty, N.V.K., Wattal, P.N. 1991. Impact of rise in temperature on the productivity of wheat in India. In: Abrol, Y.P. et al. (eds), Impact of global climatic changes on photosynthesis and plant productivity. Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp. 787–798.
Ahlawat, S., Chhabra, A.K., Behl, R.K., Sikka, V.K. 2009. ADP Glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in Normal senesing and stay green genotypes of wheat under normal and late sown conditions. ICFAI. J. of Gent. Evoln. 2:7–12.
Al-Khatib, K., Paulsen, G.M. 1999. High temperature effect on photosynthetic processes in temperate and tropical cereals. Crop Sci. 39:119–125.
Calderini, D.F., Abeledo, L.G., Savin, R., Slafer, G.A. 1999. Final grain weight in wheat as affected by short periods of high temperature during pre- and post-anthesis under field conditions. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 26:453–458.
Chinnosamy, V., Khanna Chopra, R. 2003. Effect of heat stress on grain starch content in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat and species. J. Agro. Crop Sci. 189:242–249.
Erachidi, A., Benbella, E., Talouizte, M. 2000. Grain growth in nine durum wheat cultivars. In: Royo, C., Nachit, M.M., Fonzo, N., Arous, J.L. (eds), Proceedings of Seminar “Durum wheat Improvement in the Mediteranean region: New challenges”. Zaragoza, Spain, 12–14 April, 2000. pp. 137–140.
Fischer, R.A., Maurer, O.R. 1976. Crop temperature modification and yield potential in a dwarf spring wheat. Crop Sci. 16:855–859.
Hurkman, W.J., McCue, K.F., Altenbach, S.B., Korn, A., Tanaka, C.K., Kothari, K.M., Johnson, E.L., Bechtel, D.B., Wilson, J.D., Anderson, O.D., DuPont, F.M. 2003. Effect of temperature on expression of genes encoding enzymes for starch biosynthesis in developing wheat endosperm. Plant Sci. 164:873–881.
Jenner, C.F. 1991a. Effects of exposure of wheat ears to high temperature on dry matter accumulation and carbohydrate metabolism in the grain of two cultivars. I. Immediate responses. Aust. J. Plant Physio. 18:165–177.
Jenner, C.F. 1991b. Effects of exposure of wheat ears to high temperature on dry matter accumulation and carbohydrate metabolism in the grain of two cultivars. II. Carry-over effects. Responses. Aust. J. Plant Physio. 18:179–190.
Karim, M.A., Hamid, A. 1999. Grain growth and yield performance of wheat under subtropical conditions: I. Effect of sowing dates. Cereal Res. Commun. 27:439–446.
Karrou, M. 2003. Identification of potential grain growth characteristics to be used in breeding durum wheat under semi-arid Mediterranean type of environment. Al-Awamia 108:57–72.
Keeling, P.L., Bacon, P.J., Holt, D.C. 1993. Elevated temperature reduces starch deposition in wheat endosperm by reducing the activity of soluble starch synthase. Planta 191:342–348.
Kleozkowski, L.A. 2000. Is leaf ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase an allosteric enzyme? Biochemica et Biophysics Acta. 1476:103–108.
Kumar, S., Singh, M., Verma, R.S., Kumar, S., Singh, M. 2000. Studies on heat tolerance in wheat genotypes. Gujrat Agri. Univ. Res. J. 26:16–22.
Lafta, A.M., Lorenzen, J.H. 1995. Effect of high temperature on plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in potato. Plant Physiol. 109:637–643.
May, L., Van Sanford, D.A. 1992. Selection for early heading and correlated response in maturity of soft red winter wheat. Crop Sci. 32:47–51.
Rane, J., Chauhan., H. 2002. Rate of grain growth in advanced wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions under late sown environment. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 72:581–585.
Rane, J., Nagarajan, S. 2004. High temperature index for field evaluation of heat tolerance in wheat varieties. Agricultural Systems 79:243–255.
Sarkar, C.K.G., Srivastava, P.S.L., Deshmukh, P.S. 2001. Grain growth rate and heat susceptibility index: Traits for breeding genotypes tolerant to terminal high temperature stress in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian J. Genet. 61:209–212.
Sikka, V.K., Choi, S.B., Kavakali, H., Gupta, S., Ito, H., Okita, T.W. 2001. Subcellular compartmentalization and allosteric regulation of the rice endosperm ADP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase. Plant Sci. 161:461–68.
Sofield, I., Wardlaw, I.F., Evans, L.T., Lee, S.Y. 1977. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and water contents during grain development and maturation in wheat. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 4:799–810.
About this article
Cite this article
Sheikh, S., Sikka, V., Behl, R. et al. Grain growth rate and grain yield in relation to ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) under normal and late sown conditions. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 38, 589–599 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.38.2010.4.16
- Triticum aestivum L.
- grain growth rate
- grain yield