Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of salt-tolerant wheat genotypes

Abstract

To determine limits of tolerance, provide information about genetic diversity, and explore potential as progenitors for a salt-tolerant wheat improvement program, we collected several landraces and genotypes reputed to be salt-tolerant. Salt tolerance was tested by irrigation with a diluted solution of seawater with 12 dS.m−1 electrical conductivity for two years. Phenotypic parameters of percent of emergence, days to flowering to spike emergence, and physiological maturity were not significantly affected. Leaf area was sensitive to salt stress and inhibited about 30%. Plant height was inhibited 30%, while spike length and number of grains per spike were not. Total yield of Shorawaki and Kharchia landraces confirmed their reputation as salt-tolerant. Cultivars Mepuchi, Pericu, Calafia, WH157, and SNH-1 were inhibited at a moderate level of tolerance; cultivars Cochimí, Lu26S, and KRL 1–4 were inhibited, as was the control cultivar Oasis by up to 50%. To amplify microsatellites from genomes A, B, and D, 33 pairs of primers were used. The microsatellite WMS169-6A was highly polymorphic, with 10 different alleles distinguishing the genotype set. Also, the short arm of chromosome 4D microsatellites were amplified and found to be monomorphic, which suggests highly conserved alleles. The other microsatellites had variable polymorphism. In total, 120 alleles were obtained and used to define genetic diversity. The resulting dendrogram showed that landraces Shorawaki and Kharchia are distantly grouped from all other cultivars, as well as the cultivar Chinese Spring. Strikingly, KRL1–4, a derivative of Kharchia, did not show a close relationship to its source. The geographic origin did not influence pair-wise combinations. However, pedigree did influence pair-wise combinations.

References

  1. Ashraf, M. 1994. Genetic variation for salinity tolernace in spring wheat. Hereditas 120: 99–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ashraf, M., O’Leary, J.W. 1996. Responses of some newly developed salt-tolerant genotypes of spring wheat to salt stress: 1. Yield components and ion distribution. J. Agron. and Crop Sci. 176: 91–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Börner, A., Schumann, E., Fürste, A., Cöster, H., Leithold, B., Röder, M.S., Weber, W.E. 2002. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 105: 921–936.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Díaz De León, J.L., Garibaldi-Meza, C. 1995. Potential practical application of in vitro culture of mature wheat embryos. Cereal Res. Commun. 23: 19–25.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Díaz De León, J.L., Carrillo-Laguna, M., Rajaram, S., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 1995. Rapid in vitro screening of salt tolerant wheats. Cereal Res. Commun. 23: 383–389.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Díaz De León, J.L., Elizondo-Ramírez, A., Saldaña-Barbosa, D., Gámez-González, H. 1997. Salinity effects on the kinetics of starch degradation of Triticum aestivum. Plant Physiol. 114: 119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Díaz De León, J.L., Escoppinichi, R., Zavala-Fonseca, R., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2000a. A sea-water based salinity testing protocol and the performance of a tester set of accumulated wheat germplasm. Annu. Wheat Newsl. 46: 88–90.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Díaz De León, J.L., Zavala-Fonseca, R. Escoppinichi, R., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2000b. Identification of four bread cultivars tolerant to salinity following sea water field evaluations as varietal candidates for Baja California, México. Annu. Wheat Newsl. 46: 90–91.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Díaz De León, J.L., Escoppinichi, R., Molina, E., López-Cesati, J., Delgado, R., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2001. Salt tolerant bread wheat germplasm. Annu. Wheat Newsl. 47: 117–118.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Díaz De León, J.L., Zavala-Fonseca, R., Escoppinichi, R., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2000. Identification of four bread cultivars tolerant to salinity following sea-water field evaluations as varietal candidates for Baja California, México. Annu. Wheat Newsl. 46: 90–91.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Dograr, N., Akin-Yalin, S., Akkaya, M.S. 2000. Discriminating durum wheat cultivars using highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat DNA markers. Plant Breeding 119: 360–362.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Huang, X.Q., Wang, L.X., Xu, M.X., Röder, M.S. 2003. Microsatellite mapping of the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm5e in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 106: 858–865.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Klestkina, E.K., Röder, M.S., Efremova, T.T., Börner, A., Shumny, V.K. 2004. The genetic diversity of old and modern Siberian varieties of common spring wheat as determined by microsatellite markers. Plant Breeding 123: 122–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Korzun, V., Börner, A., Worland, A.J., Law, C.N., Röder, M.S. 1997. Application of microsatellite markers to distinguish inter-varietal chromosome substitution lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 95: 149–155.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Mott, I.W., Wang, R. 2007. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salt-tolerant wheat germplasm lines using genome arrays. Plant Science 173: 327–339.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Díaz De León, J.L. 2002. Conventional and alien genetic diversity for salt tolerant wheats: Focus on current status and new germplasm development. In: Ahmad, R., Malik, K.A. (eds.) Prospects for Saline Agriculture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. pp. 69–82.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Pestsova, E., Ganal, M.W., Röder, M.S. 2000. Isolation and mapping of microsatellite markers specific for the D genome of bread wheat. Genome 43: 689–697.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Plaschke, J., Ganal, M.W., Röder, M.S. 1995. Detection of genetic diversity in closely related bread wheat using microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91: 1001–1007.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Pritchard, D.J., Hollington, P.A., Davies, W.P., Gorham, J., Díaz De León, J.L., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2001. Synthetic hexaploid wheats (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) and their salt tolerance potential. Annu. Wheat Newsl. 47: 103–104.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Pritchard, D.J., Hollington, P.A., Davies, W.P., Gorham J., Díaz De León, J.L., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2002. K+/Na+ discrimination in synthetic hexaploid wheat lines: Transfer of the trait for K+/Na+ discrimination for Aegilops tauschii to Triticum turgidum. Cereal Res. Commun. 30: 261–267.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Röder, M.S., Korzun, V., Wendekake, K., Plaschke, J., Tixier, M.-H., Leroy, P., Ganal, M.W. 1998. A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149: 2007–2023.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Shariflou, M.R., Sharp, P.J. 1999. A polymporhic microsatellite in the 3’ end of “waxy” genes of wheat, Triticum aestivum. Plant Breeding 118: 275–277.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Yifru, T., Hammer, K., Huang, Q., Röder, M.S. 2006. Regional patterns of microsatellite diversity in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat accessions. Plant Breeding 125: 125–130.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. L. Díaz De León.

Additional information

Communicated by A. Aniol

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Díaz De León, J.L., Escoppinichi, R., Zavala-Fonseca, R. et al. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of salt-tolerant wheat genotypes. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 38, 15–22 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.38.2010.1.2

Download citation

Keywords

  • wheat
  • salt tolerance
  • microsatellites