Evaluation of genetic diversity among bread wheat varieties and landraces of Pakistan by SSR markers

Abstract

Genetic diversity of 48 Pakistani wheat varieties and 12 landraces was assessed, loss of genetic diversity in bread wheat during the change from traditional landraces (LVs) to modern breeding varieties was examined, and recent trends of national wheat breeding programmes were identified. A total of 29 SSR markers, representing at least one marker from each chromosome of wheat, were used to analyze the genetic diversity. A total of 80 alleles were generated by the 29 loci with an average of 2.76 alleles per marker. A significant loss of genetic diversity was observed from LVs to elite cultivated varieties. Average genetic similarity between landraces was 61% while varieties released after 1990 showed 73% similarity. Range of genetic distance observed between all possible pairs was from 1.41 to 4.90. It was also observed that most of the varieties released from one source showed comparatively lower diversity indicating the utilization of common elite breeding material or interbreeding of released varieties.

References

  1. Anderson, J.A., Churchill, G.A., Autrique, J.E., Sorrells, M.E., Tanksley, S.D. 1993. Optimizing parental selection for genetic linkage maps. Genome 36:181–186.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Barrett, B.A., Kidwell, K.K. 1998. AFLP-based genetic diversity assessment among wheat cultivars from the Pacific Northwest. Crop Sci. 38:1261–1271.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Börner, A., Chebotar, S., Korzun, V. 2000. Molecular characterization of the genetic integrity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm after long-term maintenance. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:494–497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Burkhamer, R.L., Lanning, S.P., Martens, R.J., Martin, J.M., Talbert, L.E. 1998. Predicting progeny variance from parental divergence in hard red spring wheat. Crop Sci. 38:243–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chen, H.B., Martin, J.M., Lavin, M., Talbert, L.E. 1994. Genetic diversity in hard red spring wheat based on sequence-tagged-site PCR markers. Crop Sci. 34:1628–1632.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Devos, K.M., Bryan, G.J., Collins, A.J., Gale, M.D. 1995. Application of two microsatellite sequences in wheat storage proteins as molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90:247–252.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Huang, X. Q., Börner, A., Röder, M. S., Ganal, M. W. 2002. Assessing genetic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm using microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 105:699–707.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Iqbal, N., Firdissa, E., Khlestkina, K., Weidner, A., Röder, M.S., Börner, A. 2007. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to identify and map alien segments carrying genes for effective resistance to leaf rust in bread wheat. Plant Genet. Resour. 5:100–103.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Joshi, C.P., Nguyen, H.T. 1993. RAPD (random amplied polymorphic DNA) analysis based intervarietal genetic relationships among hexaploid wheats. Plant Sci. 93:95–103.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kim, H.S., Ward, R.W. 2000. Patterns of RFLP-based genetic diversity in germplasm pools of common wheat with different geographical or breeding program origins. Euphytica 115:197–208.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Landjeva, S., Korzun V., Ganeva, G. 2006. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Bulgarian winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties during the period 1925–2003 using microsatellites. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 53:1605–1614.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Leonova, I., Börner, A., Budashkina, E., Unger, N.O., Röder, M., Salina, E. 2004. Identification of microsatellite markers for a leaf rust resistance gene introgressed into common wheat from Triticum timopheevii. Plant Breeding 123:93–95.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Masmoudi, K., Rebai, A., Ellouz, R. 2006. AFLP and SSR fingerprinting to evaluate genetic diversity among bread wheat cultivars in Tunisia. Cereal Res. Commun. 34:871–878.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Nagaoka, T., Ogihara, Y. 1997. Applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94:597–602.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Nei, M. 1973. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70:3321–3323.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Niwa, K., Suzuki, H., Tominaga, T., Nasim, S., Anwar, R., Ogawa, M., Furuta, Y. 2008. Evaluation of genetic variation in high molecular weight glutenin subunits of seed storage protein using landraces of common wheat from Pakistan. Cereal Res. Commun. 36:327–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Plaschke, J., Ganal, M.W., Röder, M.S. 1995. Detection of genetic diversity in closely related bread wheat using microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:1001–1007.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Prasad, M., Varshney, R.K., Roy, J.K., Balyan, H.S., Gupta, P.K. 2000. The use of microsatellites for detecting DNA polymorphism, genotype identification and genetic diversity in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:584–592.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Röder, M.S., Korzun, V., Gill, B.S., Ganal, M.W. 1998a. The physical mapping of microsatellite markers in wheat. Genome 41:278–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Röder, M.S., Korzun, V., Wendehake, K., Plaschke, J., Tixier, M.H., Leroy, P., Ganal, M.W. 1998b. A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149:2007–2023.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Röder, M.S., Plaschke, J., Konig, S.U., Börner, A., Sorrels, M.E., Tanksley, S.D., Ganal, M.W. 1995. Abundance, variability and chromosomal location of microsatellites in wheat. Mol. Gen. Genet. 246:327–333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Röder, M.S., Wendehake, K., Korzun, V., Bredemeijer, G., Laborie, D., Bertrand, L., Isaac, P., Rendell, S., Jackson, J., Cooke, R.J., Vosmann, B., Ganal, M.W. 2002. Construction and analysis of a microsatellite-based database of European wheat cultivars. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106:67–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Saghai Maroof, M.A., Biyashev, R.M., Yang, G.P., Zhang, Q., Allard, R.W. 1994 Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:5466–5470.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Siedler, H., Messmer, M.M., Schachermayr, G.M., Winzeler, H., Winzeler, M., Keller, B. 1994. Genetic diversity in European wheat and spelt breeding material based on RFLP data. Theor. Appl. Genet. 88:994–1003.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Stachel, M., Lelley, T., Grausgruber, H., Vollmann, T. 2000. Application of microsatellites in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for studying genetic differentiation caused by selection for adaptation and use. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:242–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Tautz, D., Renz, M. 1984. Simple sequence are ubiquitous repetitive components of eukaryotic genomes. Nucl. Acid Res. 12:4127–4138.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Wu, K.S., Tanksley, S.D. 1993. Abundance, polymorphism and genetic mapping of microsatellites in rice. Mol. Gen. Genet. 241:225–235.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N. Iqbal.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Iqbal, N., Tabasum, A., Sayed, H. et al. Evaluation of genetic diversity among bread wheat varieties and landraces of Pakistan by SSR markers. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 37, 489–498 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.37.2009.4.2

Download citation

Keywords

  • genetic diversity
  • microsatellite markers
  • SSR
  • wheat