Distribution of Vp-1 alleles in Chinese white-grained landraces, historical and current wheat cultivars


Genotypes with various Vp-1B alleles perform different levels of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance. In this study, 217 white-grained wheat cultivars, including 75 landraces, 39 historical cultivars, and 103 modern cultivars from five major regions of China, were examined to characterize the diversity of the Viviparous-1B (Vp-1B) locus associated with PHS tolerance. Four Vp-1B alleles were identified, three (Vp-1Ba, Vp-1Bb and Vp-1Bc) of which were previously reported in Chinese wheat cultivars. A new allele, Vp-1Be, was identified in the PHS tolerant landrace Hongheshangtou. Sequence analysis showed that Vp-1Be had an insertion of a 4-bp fragment, two SNPs, and a deletion of an 83-bp fragment compared with the nucleotide sequence of Vp-1Ba (AJ400713), all located in the third intron. Vp-1Be shared 97.80% similarity with the nucleotide sequence of AJ400713. The frequencies of Vp-1Ba, Vp-1Bb, and Vp-1Bc were 36.0%, 5.3%, and 57.3% in landraces; 23.1%, 7.7%, and 69.2% in historical cultivars; and 52.4%, 0%, and 47.6% in current cultivars, respectively.


  1. Bailey, P.C., McKibbin, R.S., Lenton, J.R. 1999. Genetic map location for orthologous VP1 genes in wheat and rice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:281–284.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Gale, K.R., Ma, W., Zhang, W., Rampling, L., Hill, A.S., Appels, R., Morris, P., Morrel, M. 2001. Simple high-throughput DNA markers for genotyping in wheat. In: Eastwood, R. et al. (eds), Proc. 10th Australian Wheat Breeding Assembly, Wheat Breeding Soc. of Australian. pp. 26–31.

  3. Hoecker, U., Vasil, I.K., McCarty, D.R. 1995. Integrated control of seed maturation and germination programs by activator and repressor functions of Viviparous-1 of maize. Genes and Dev. 9:2459–2469.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Holdsworth, M., Kurup, S., McKibbin, R. 1999. Molecular and genetic mechanisms regulating the transition from embryo development to germination. Trends Plant. Sci. 4:275–280.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Lewin, B. 2007. Gene IX, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA, USA. pp. 521–570.

    Google Scholar 

  6. McCarty, D.R., Hattori, T., Carson, C.B., Vasil, V., Lazar, M., Vasil, I. K. 1991. The Viviparous-1 developmental gene of maize encodes a novel transcriptional activator. Cell 66:895–905.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Osa, M., Kato, K., Mori, M., Shindo, C., Torada, A., Miura, H. 2003. Mapping QTLs for seed dormancy and the Vp1 homologue on chromosome 3A in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106:1491–1496.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Xiao, S.H., Yan, C.S., Zhang, H.P., Sun, G.Z. 2002a. Studies on Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat. China Agricultural Science and Technology Press, Beijing, pp. 266–292.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Xiao, S.H., Zhang, X.Y., Yan, C.S., Lin, H. 2002b. Germplasm improvement for preharvest sprouting resistance in Chinese white-grained wheat: An overview of the current strategy. Euphytica 126:35–38.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Yang, Y., Zhao, X.L., Xia, L.Q., Chen, X.M., Xia, X.C., Yu, Z., He, Z.H., Röder, M.S. 2007a. Development and validation of a Vp-1 STS marker for preharvest sprouting in Chinese wheats. Theor. Appl. Genet. 115:971–980.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Yang, Y., Ma, Y.Z., Xu, Z.S., Chen, X.M., He, Z.H., Yu, Z., Wilkinson, M., Jones, D.H., Shewry, R.P., Xia, L.Q. 2007b. Isolation and expression characterization of novel Vp-1 genes in Chinese wheats. J. Exp. Bot. 58:2863–2871.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Zhou, Y., He, Z.H., Sui, X.X., Xia, X.C., Zhang, X.K., Zhang, G.S. 2007. Genetic improvement of grain yield and associated traits in the northern China winter wheat region from 1960 to 2000. Crop Sci. 47:245–253.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Z. H. He or L. Q. Xia.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yang, Y., Chen, X.M., He, Z.H. et al. Distribution of Vp-1 alleles in Chinese white-grained landraces, historical and current wheat cultivars. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 37, 169–177 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.37.2009.2.3

Download citation


  • Triticum aestivum
  • Vp-1 alleles
  • pre-harvest sprouting
  • seed dormancy