With a warmer climate, dry and excess rainfall conditions could become more frequent, severe, and longer-lasting. For these reasons, long-term study had been conducting in Eastern Hungary in the Nyírlugos Field Trial between 1973 and 1990 for obtain relationships between precipitation quantities-, soil agrochemical properties and mineral fertilization on winter wheat yield. The experimental precipitation character was formed by winter half-years (Oct.–Mar.), months (Oct.–Sep.), pre-months of sowing (Aug.), critical sequential month number in vegetation seasons (Sep.–Jul.) and critical sequential month number in experimental years (Sep.–Aug). In average rainfall years (equivalent to the 50 year rainfall mean from 1901 to 1950) without any mineral fertilization, the wheat yield stabilized at the level of 1.58 t · ha−1. With N, P, K and Mg fertilizer input, the minimum and maximum yields were 2.29 t · ha−1 and 3.72 t · ha−1. The yield increased to 38.5% (1.00 t · ha−1) with the whole NPK and Mg completed NPKMg treatment. On the control plots, the yield grew by 6% during a dry year compared to average year. At N, NP and NK combinations yields were diminished to 12%. Dry damage on yield production dropped to 11% with NPK and NPKMg applications. In dryer years compared to average years, yields were reduced with 31% on the control soils. Yields were lessened for an average year by 42% and 47% with N, NP, NK and NPK, NPKMg loadings. During wet conditions and without fertilization, the yields decreased more dramatically (82%) as compared to dry conditions. The yield was subsided by 61% with unfavorable (N, NP, NK) nutritions and the effect of excess rainfall was lowered on NPK and NPKMg treatments to 59%. Correlations between yield and precipitation during various vegetation periods (control: R = 0.59, N: R = 0.57, NP: R = 0.76, NK: R = 0.54, NPK: R = 0.67, NPKMg: R = 0.71) indicated that optimum yields developed in response to rainfall in the 450–500 mm range. Above or below this rainfall range yields reducted quadratically. Results obtained on fertilization compensation [yield loss (kg mm−1 and %) of ± 100 mm precipitation interspace (−lessening/+increasing, mm) from maximum yield (t ha−1) and its rainfall quantity (mm)] on negative effects of dry climate confirm that minimum and maximum yield losses had have changed among 0% (NP)–−114% (N), and in wet −46% (N)–−87% (NK). The best models were presented under dry in instance of wheat: NP (0%) and in wet N (−46%) loadings. In these fertilization systems in dry conditions the yield loss reductions had been having observed of 28% and in wet 64%, respectively.
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Márton, L. Long-Term Study of Precipitation and Fertilization Interactions on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield in the Nyírlugos Field Trial in Hungary between 1973 and 1990. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 36, 511–522 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.36.2008.3.15
- nutrient supply
- winter wheat