In Hungary rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated under flooded conditions. Direct seeding into the soil is applied usually. The optimal sowing date is a key factor necessary to the success of this annual crop because of the relatively short growing season. The main objective of this research was to: (1) analyse duration of period from sowing to emergence at different temperature values, (2) determine base temperature of this phenophase and (3) establish a thermal time model for rice emergence. To do this, growth chamber experiments with 5 Hungarian cultivars were conducted to determine the time to median emergence (E50) at constant temperature of 14 to 34 °C in 2 °C steps. The sowing depth was 2 cm, and moisture was not a limiting factor. It was found that the critical thermal zone, which is of highest practical importance, is between 14 and 16 °C. At these values the E50 is 23.9 and 13.4 days, respectively, showing a border between unfavourable and acceptable conditions. In the temperature interval between 26 and 34 °C the time needed for emergence was only 3.3 to 4.4 days. Variety differences were also detected. Base temperature was found between 9.8 and 10.9 °C. The thermal time requirements of 4 cultivars varied between 69 and 73 °C day. Data of field experiment with 9 sowing dates and a pot experiment with 3 sowings confirmed that our thermal time model can successfully simulate the emergence of rice.
Bonhomme, R. 2000. Bases and limits to using “degree.day” units. European Journal of Agronomy 13:1–10.
Caton, B.P., Foin, T.C., Gibson, K.D., Hill, J.E. 1998. A temperature-based model of direct-, water-seeded rice (Oryza sativa) stand establishment in California. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 90:91–102.
Chaudhary, T.N., Ghildial, B.P. 1969. Germination response of rice seeds to constant and alternating temperatures. Agricultural Journal 61:328–330.
Gao, L.Z., Jin, Z.Q., Huang, Y., Zhang, L.Z. 1992. Rice clock model — a computer simulation model of rice development. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 60:1–16.
Gilmore, E.C., Rogers, J.S. 1958. Heat units as a method of measuring maturity in corn. Agronomy Journal 50:611–615.
Gombos, B., Simon-Kiss, I. 2005. Bilinear thermal time models for predicting flowering time of rice. Cereal Research Communications 33:569–576.
Himeda, M. 1973. Studies on the winter-sowing method in direct sowing culture of rice — Survival of rice seeds in soil under low temperature conditions. J. Cent. Agric. Exp. Stn. 18:1–70.
Lee, H.S., Taguchi, K. 1969. Studies on the germinability of rice seeds at low temperature. 1. The varietal differences and the effects of growing conditions of parent plants on the germinability of rice seeds at low temperature (in Japanese, English summary). Mem. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 7:138–146.
Scott, S.J., Jones, R.A., Williams, W.A. 1984. Review of data analyses methods for seed germination. Crop Science 24:1192–1199.
Simonné K.I. 1979. A hazai rizstermesztés problémái. (Problems of Hungarian Rice Production) MÉM Agroinform, Budapest, 36 pp.
Simonné K.I. 1983. A rizs termesztése. (Rice Production) Mezőgazdasági Kiadó, Budapest, 293 pp.
Soltani, A., Robertson, M.J., Torabi, B., Tousefi-Diaz, M., Sarparast, R. 2006. Modelling seedling emergence in chickpea as influenced by temperature and sowing depth. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138:156–167.
Steinmaus, S.J., Prather, T.S., Holt, J.S. 2000. Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species. Journal of Experimental Botany 51:275–286.
Wiese, A.M., Binning, L.K. 1987. Calculating the threshold temperature of development for weeds. Weed Science 35:177–179.
Yang, S., Logan, J., Coffey, D.L. 1995. Mathematical formulae for calculating the base temperature for growing degree days. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 74:61–74.
Yin, X., Kropff, M.J., McLaren, G., Visperas, R.M. 1995. A nonlinear model for crop development as a function of temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 77:1–16.
Yoshida, S. 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 269 pp.
About this article
Cite this article
Gombos, B., Simon-Kiss, I. Study and Modelling the Emergence of Five Hungarian Rice Cultivars. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 36, 501–510 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.36.2008.3.14
- thermal time
- base temperature
- linear model