Contribution to yield of cereals has traditionally been studied using yield and various yield components, thus neglecting the role of other organs such as ear awns and flag leaf. Here, we studied the effects of genotypes on the photosynthetic activity of the flag leaf blade and the ear awns of spring wheat. The parameters related to the photosynthetic activity were analyzed in relation to the grain yield and various yield components at maturity. In the present study, ten wheat varieties/lines were tested to find out the effects of flag leaf and ear awns detachment on grain yield. There was much genetic variability among different varieties/lines for different traits. Awns detachment exhibited less effect on yield and yield related characters as compared to flag leaf detachment, while detachment of both had more significant effects than individual treatment. Flag leaf area and some other components showed positive and significant correlation with grain yield. Which suggested that flag leaf + awns might be used a morphological marker, while selecting wheat varieties/lines for good photosynthetic activity and high yield.
Abbad, H., Jaafari, S.E.L., Bort, J., Araus, J.L. 2003. Comparison of flag leaf and ear photosynthesis with biomass and grain yield of durum wheat under various water conditions and genotypes. Agronomie 24:19–28.
Ahmed, N., Khaliq, I., Chowdhry, M.A., Ahsan, M., Ibrahim, M., Maekqwq, M. 2004. Heritability estimates of some flag leaf characters in wheat. Caderno de Pesquisa Ser. Bio., Santa Cruz do Sul. 16:131–141.
Anonymous 2005. Statistics-Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations.
Blum, A. 1985. Photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves and ears of wheat and barley varieties, J. Exp. Botany 36:432–440.
Chowdhry, M.A., Mahmood, N., Rashad, T.R., Khaliq, I. 1999. Effect of leaf area removal on grain yield and its components in spring wheat. Rachis 18:75–78.
Das, N.R., Mukherjee, N.N. 1991. Grain yield contribution by leaf and awn in dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environment and Ecology 9:33–36
Duncan, D.B. 1955. Multiple range and Multiple F. Test. Biometrics 11:1–42.
Jedynski, S. 2001. Influence of awns on seed size in spring wheat. Grupy problemowej hodowli Pszenicy. Proceedings of a symposium, Zakopane, Poland, pp. 30–31. Biuletyn-Instytutu-Hodowli-i-Aklimatyzaci-Roslin, 16:211–219.
Johnson, R.R., Frey, N.M., Moss, D.N. 1974. Effect of water stress on photosynthesis and transpiration of flag leaves and spikes of barley and wheat. Crop Science 14:728–731.
Khaliq, I., Abbas, M., Rahim, M.A. 2001. Association of morphological characters with economic yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Online J. of Biol. Science 1:432–433.
Mahmood, N., Chowdhry, M.A. 1997. Removal of green Photo-synthetic structures and their effect on some yield parameters in bread wheat. Wheat Information Service 85:14–20.
Mahmood, N. 1989. Association analysis for various agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under normal and stress conditions. MSc. (Hons) Agriculture, Thesis, Deptt., Pl. Br. Genet., Univ. Agric. Faisalabad.
Narwal, N.K., Verma, P.K., Narwal, M.S. 1999. Genetic variability, correlation and path-coefficient analysis in bread wheat in two climatic zones of Haryana. Agri. Sci. Digest Karnal 19:73–76.
Olugbemi, L.B., Bingham, J., Austin, R.B. 1976. Ear and flag leaf photosynthesis of awned and awnless Triticum species. Ann. Appl. Biology 84:231–240.
Singh, S.B., Singh, T.B. 2001. Correlation and path analysis in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under light texture soil. Res. Crops 2:99–101.
Slafer, G.A., Satorre, E.H., Andrade, F.H. 1994. Increases in grain yield in bread wheat from breeding and associated physiological changes. In: Slafer, G.A. (ed.), Genetic Improvement of Field Crops. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 1–68.
Sorkhi, L.B., Yazdi, S.B., Abd-Mishani, C., Gerami, A. 1998. Study on the relationship between grain yield and quality traits in 500 bread wheat lines using factor analysis. Iranian J. of Agric. Science 29:363–378.
Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A biometrical approach. 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, USA.
Voltas, J., Romagosa, I., Lafarga, A., Armesto, A.P., Sombrero, A., Araus, J.L. 1999. Genotype by environment interaction for grain yield in two-rowed barley grown under semiarid conditions. Eur. J. Agronomy 9:147–155.
About this article
Cite this article
Khaliq, I., Irshad, A. & Ahsan, M. Awns and Flag Leaf Contribution Towards Grain Yield in Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 36, 65–76 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.36.2008.1.7
- morphological marker
- ear awns
- flag leaf area