Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 157–166 | Cite as

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation and Remobilization of Durum Wheat as Affected by Soil Gravel Content

  • A. Masoni
  • L. ErcoliEmail author
  • M. Mariotti
  • S. Pampana


Soil gravel content affects many soil physical properties, as well as crop yield. Little is known regarding the influence of soil gravel content on growth and nutrient uptake of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorous during the vegetative and reproductive periods and the contribution of pre-anthesis assimilates to grain N and P content have been evaluated in two durum wheat varieties grown on soils with 0, 10, 20 and 30% gravel content. The two varieties showed similar behaviour and the increase of soil gravel decreased plant biomass during the entire biological cycle. Nitrogen and P concentration of all plant parts was not affected by soil gravel content, while N and P content was greatly reduced, owing to the effect on dry matter yield. Post-anthesis accumulation and remobilization of N and P were greatly reduced: the decrease from gravel-free soil to 30% gravel content was about 41 kg N ha −1 and 4 kg P ha −1 for the former and 14 kg N ha −1 and 2 kg P ha −1 for the latter. The differences in growth rate were attributed to differences in development of the root system due to the restricted soil volume.


accumulation durum wheat gravel content nitrogen phosphorus remobilization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbad, H., El Jaafari, S., Bort, J., Araus, J.L. 2004. Comparison of flag leaf and ear photosynthesis with biomass and grain yield of durum wheat under various water conditions and genotypes. Agronomie 24:19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, R.B., Edrich, J.A., Ford, M.A., Blackwell, R.D. 1977. The fate of dry matter, carbohydrates and 14 C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling. Ann. Bot. 41:1309–1321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbottin, A., Lecomte, C., Bouchard, C., Jeuffroy, M. 2005. Nitrogen remobilization during grain filling in wheat: genotypic and environmental effects. Crop Sci. 45:1141–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batten, G.D., Wardlaw, I.F., Aston, M.J. 1986. Growth and the distribution of phosphorus in wheat developed under various phosphorus and temperature regimes. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 37:459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carmi, A., Heuer, B. 1981. The role of roots in control of bean shoot growth. Ann. Bot. 48:519–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cox, M.C., Qualset, C.O., Rains, D.W. 1985. Genetic variation for nitrogen assimilation and translocation in wheat. II. Nitrogen assimilation in relation to grain yield and protein. Crop Sci. 25:435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cox, M.C., Qualset, C.O., Rains, D.W. 1986. Genetic variation for nitrogen assimilation and translocation in wheat. III. Nitrogen translocation in relation to grain yield and protein. Crop Sci. 26:737–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Danalatos, N.G., Kosmas, C.S., Moustakas, N.C., Yassoglou, N. 1995. Rock fragments. II Their impact on soil physical properties and biomass production under Mediterranean conditions. Soil Use Manage. 11:121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehdaie, B., Waines, J.G. 2001. Sowing date and nitrogen rate effects on dry matter and nitrogen partitioning in bread and durum wheat. Field Crops Res. 73:47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ercoli, L., Masoni, A., Mariotti, M., Arduini, I. 2006. Dry matter accumulation and remobilization of durum wheat as affected by soil gravel content. Cereal Res. Commun. 34:1299–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gebbing, T., Schnyder, H., Kühbauch, W. 1999. The utilization of pre-anthesis reserves in grain filling of wheat. Assessment by steady-state 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 labelling. Plant, Cell Environ. 22: 851–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Korner, C., Pelaez Menendez-Riedl, S., John, P.C.L. 1989. Why are bonsai plants small? A consideration of cell size. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 16:443–448.Google Scholar
  13. Kosmas, C., Moustakas, N., Danalatos, N.G., Yassoglou, N. 1994. The effect of rock fragments on wheat biomass production under highly variable moisture conditions in Mediterranean environments. Catena 23:191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Masoni, A., Mariotti, M., Ercoli, L. 1997. Maize growth and nutrient uptake as affected by root zone volume. Italian J. Agron. 2:95–102.Google Scholar
  15. Papakosta, D.K. 1994. Phosphorus accumulation and translocation in wheat as affected by cultivar and nitrogen fertilization. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 173:260–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Papakosta, D.K., Gagianas, A.A. 1991. Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, remobilization, and losses for Mediterranean wheat during grain filling. Agron. J. 83:864–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Plaut, Z., Butow, B.J., Blumenthal, C.S., Wrigley, C.W. 2004. Transport of dry matter into developing wheat kernels and its contribution to grain yield under post-anthesis water deficit and elevated temperature. Field Crops Res. 86:185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Poesen, J. 1990. Erosion process research in relation to soil erodibility and some implications for improving soil quality. In: Albaladejo, J., Stocking, M.A., Diaz, E. (eds), Soil Degradation and Rehabilitation in Mediterranean Environmental Conditions. CSIC, Murcia, pp. 159–170.Google Scholar
  19. Poesen, J., Lavee, H. 1994. Rock fragments in top soils: significance and processes. Catena 23:1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ravina, I., Magier, J. 1984. Hydraulic conductivity and water retention of clay soils containing rock fragments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:736–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  22. van Wesemael, B., Poesen, J., de Figueiredo, T. 1995. Effects of rock fragments on physical degradation of cultivated soils by rainfall. Soil Tillage Res. 33:229–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zadoks, J.C., Chang, T.T., Konzak, C.F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Res. 14:415–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell’AgroecosistemaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna di Studi Universitari e di PerfezionamentoPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations