Translocation of Dry Matter in Ten Winter Wheat Cultivars Released in the Years 1921–2003
Set of 10 winter wheat cultivars was evaluated in pot experiment at 4 levels of N-fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha−1) with the aim to find out contribution of above ground and root translocated biomass on increasing of grain yield of modern cultivars. Modern semi-dwarf cultivars headed earlier, accumulated less above ground biomass till heading, but more root biomass and their intensity of root biomass accumulation was higher than at old cultivars. The highest root biomass produced cultivar Astella, carrying Rht1. On the doubled grain yield of modern cultivars grain number per ear (r=0.907++) contributed more than grain weight (r=0.889++) and ear number per plant (r=−0.512) lowered moderately with the year of cultivar release. Grain yield increased as a result of higher harvest index, without increasing biomass production. Translocation of above ground biomass increased with the year of cultivar release, except of the semi-dwarf, earliest cultivar Kosutka. In all cultivars, root biomass was decreasing from the heading to the maturity and their contribution on translocated dry matter in grain was three times higher than from above ground biomass. Portion of total biomass translocated in grain varied among cultivars from 2.34% (Kosutka) to 41.51% (Astella).
Keywordstranslocation above ground dry matter root dry matter winter wheat cultivars
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