The deoxynivalenol content, presence of kernels infected by Fusarium spp. pathogens and the frequency of visually scabby kernels in wheat intended for human consumption were monitored in 2003–2005. About 1000 samples provided by growers from various regions of the Czech Republic were analysed each year. Immunochemical assay ELISA-based kits for the analysis of deoxynivalenol content were employed. In 2003, 2004 and 2005, deoxynivalenol was detected at the maximum levels of 5090 µg.kg−1, 18300 µg.kg−1 and 4437 µg.kg−1, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of kernels infected by Fusarium spp. pathogens, and percentage of visually scabby kernels. In all years under study, the relationship between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of visually scabby kernels was closer than that between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of kernels infected by Fusarium spp.
Abramson, D. 1998. Mycotoxin formation and environmental factors. In: Sinha, K.K., Bhatnagar, D. (eds), Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 255–277.
Amelung, D. 1996. Experiences with the isolation of plant pathogenic fungi. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Sym. of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology: Diagnosis and identification of plant pathogens. Bonn, Germany, 09.–12.09. 1996, pp. 35–36.
Atanasoff, Z., Nakamura, C., Mori, N., Kaneda, C. 1994. Mycotoxin production and pathogenicity of Fusarium species and wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight. Can. J. Bot. 72:161–167.
Chelkowski, J. 1998. Distribution of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in cereal grains. In: Sinha, K.K., Bhatnagar, D. (eds), Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 45–64.
Clear, R.M., Patrick, S.K. 1990. Fusarium species isolated from wheat samples containing tombstones (scab) kernels from Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 70:1057–1069.
Cook, R.J. 1981. Fusarium diseases of cereals in Western Europe. In: Nelson, P.E., Toussoun, T.A., Cook, R.J. (eds), Fusarium: Diseases, Biology and Taxonomy. The Pensylvania State University Press, University Park and London, pp. 56–63.
Dalcero, A., Torres, A., Etchevery, M., Chulze, S., Varsavsky, E. 1997. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and Fusarium graminearum in Argentinian wheat. Food Additives and Contaminants 14:11–14.
Demcey Johnson, D., Flaskerud, G.K., Taylor, R.D., Satyanarayana, V. 1998. Economic impacts of fusarium head blight in wheat. Agricultural Economic Report no. 396. Agricultural Experiment Station, North Dakota State University: Department of Agricultural Economics.
Dexter, J.E., Nowicki, T.W. 2003. Safety assurance and quality assurance issues associated with Fusarium head blight in wheat. In: Leonard, K.J., Bushnell, W.R. (eds), Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Barley. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, pp. 420–460.
Eppley, R.M., Trucksess, M.W., Nesheim, S., Thorpe, C.W., Wood, G.E., Pohland, A.E. 1984. Deoxynivalenol in winter wheat: Thin layer chromatographic method and survey. J. Assoc. of Anal. Chem. 67:43–45.
FAO 2002. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants, Thirty-fifth Session, Arusha, Tanzania, 17–21 March 2003: Discussion Paper on Deoxynivalenol. CX/FAC 03/35.
Ittu, M., Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, J., Kostecki, M., Golinski, P. 2000. Deoxynivalenol accumulation and other scab symptoms in six Romanian wheat genotypes inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Mycotoxin Res. 16:15–22.
Joffé, A.Z. 1986. Fusarium Species: Their Biology and Toxicology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Jones, R.K., Mirocha, C.J. 1999. Quality parameters in small grains from Minnesota affected by Fusarium head blight. Plant Diseases 83:506–511.
Liu, W., Langseth, W., Skinnes, H., Elen, O.N., Sundheim, L. 1997. Comparison of visual head blight ratings, seed infection levels and deoxynivalenol production for assessment of resistance in cereals inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103:589–595.
Logrieco, A., Bottalico, A. 2001. Distribution of toxigenic Fusarium species and mycotoxin associated with head blight of wheat in Europe. In: Proceedings of International Conference: Sustainable systems of cereal crop protection against fungal diseases as the way of reduction of toxin occurrence in the food webs. 02.–06.07. 2001, Kromeriz, pp. 83–89.
Logrieco, A., Bottalico, A., Mul, G., Moretti, A., Perrone, G. 2003. Epidemiology of toxigenic fungi and their associated mycotoxins for some Mediterranean crops. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109:645–667.
Mathur, S.B., Cunfer, B.M. 1993. Seed-borne Diseases and Seed Health Testing of Wheat. Danish Gov. Inst. of Seed Pathol. for Develop. Countries, Copenhagen, pp. 83–93.
Mesterházy, A. 2003. Breeding wheat for Fusarium head blight resistance in Europe. In: Leonard, K.J., Bushnell, W.R. (eds), Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Barley. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, USA, 312 pp.
Mesterházy, A., Bartók, T. 1993. Resistance, pathogenicity and Fusarium spp. influencing toxin (DON) contamination of wheat varieties. Hodowla Rostlin, Akl. i Nas. 37:9–15.
Miller, J.D., Young, J.C., Sampson, R.D. 1985. Deoxynivalenol and Fusarium head blight resistance in spring cereals. Phytopath. Z. 113:359–367.
Mirocha, C.J., Yu, H., Evans, C.K., Kolaczkowski, E.K., Dill-Macky, R. 1997. Chemistry and physiology of deoxynivalenol in pathogenesis. Cereal Res. Comm. 25: 309–314.
Parry, D.W., Jenkinson, P., McLeod, L. 1995. Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grain cereals — A review. Plant Pathology 44:207–238.
Perkowski, J., Chelkowski, J., Blazczak, P., Snijders, C.H.A., Wakulinski, W. 1991. A study of the correlation between the amount of deoxynivalenol in grain of wheat and triticale and percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels. Mycotoxin Res. 7A Part II: 102–114.
Schaafsma, A.W., Savard, M.E., Clear, R., Dexter, J. 2004. Methods and issues regarding detection of deoxynivalenol, Fusarium-damaged kernels, and Fusarium spp. in commercial grain in Canada. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 26:443–452.
Schnerr, H., Vogel, R.F., Niessen, L. 2002. Correlation between DNA of trichotecene-producing Fusarium species and deoxynivalenol concentrations in wheat samples. Letters in Applied Microbiology 35:121–125.
Sinha, R.C., Savard, M.E. 1997. Concentration of deoxynivalenol in single kernels and various tissues of wheat heads. Can. J. Plant. Pathol. 19:8–12.
Snijders, C.H.A., Perkowski, J. 1990. Effects of head blight caused by Fusarium culmorum on toxin content and weight of wheat kernels. Phytopathology 80:566–570.
Teich, A.H., Shugar, L., Smid, A. 1987. Soft white winter wheat cultivar field-resistance to scab and deoxynivalenol accumulation. Cereal Res. Comm. 15:109–114.
Tkachuk, R., Dexter, J.E., Tipples, K.H., Nowicki, T.W. 1991. Removal by specific gravity table of tombstone kernels and associated trichothecenes from wheat infected with Fusarium head blight. Cereal Chemistry 68:428–431.
Trendholm, H.L., Cochrane, W.P., Cohen, H., Elliot, J.I., Farnworth, E.R., Friend, D.W., Hamilton, R.M.G., Neish, G.A., Standish, J.F. 1981. Survey of vomitoxin contamination of the 1980 white winter wheat crop in Ontario, Canada. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58:992A–994A.
Trigo-Stockli, D.M., Curran, S.P., Pedersen, J.R. 1995. Distribution and occurrence of mycotoxins in 1993 Kansas wheat. Cereal Chem. 72:470–474.
Tvarůžek, L., Ji, L., Cao, K. 2003. Reaction of winter wheat genotypes from Chinese and Czech collection to Fusarium head blight and leaf diseases. In Dagun Liu (ed.), Research of Plant Pathology in Hebei. Volume 1, China Agriculture Press, pp. 94–100.
Visconti, A., Chelkowski, J., Botallico, A. 1986. Deoxynivalenol and 3-acetoxydeoxynivalenol-mycotoxins associated with wheat head fusariosis in Poland. Mycotoxin Res. 2:59–64.
Wiersma, J.W., Peters, E.L., Hanson, M.L., Bouvette, R.J., Bush, R.H. 1996. Fusarium head blight in hard red spring wheat: cultivar responses to natural epidemics. Agron. J. 88:223–230.
Wiese, M.V. 1987. Compendium of Wheat Diseases. 2nd edition, APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, 152 pp.
Windels, C.E. 2000. Economic and social impact of Fusarium head blight: changing farm and rural communities in the northern Great Plains. Phytopathology 90:17–21.
Wong, L.S.L., Abramson, D., Tekauz, A., Leisle, D., McKenzie, R.I.H. 1995. Pathogenicity and mycotoxin production of Fusarium species causing head blight in wheat cultivars varying in resistance. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75:261–267.
Zhang, Z., Jin, Y. 2004. Investigation of kernel infection by Fusarium graminearum in wheat. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight, Orlando, USA, 11–15 December 2004, pp. 540–542.
About this article
Cite this article
Polišenská, I., Tvarůžek, L. Relationships Between Deoxynivalenol Content, Presence of Kernels Infected by Fusarium spp. Pathogens and Visually Scabby Kernels in Czech Wheat in 2003–2005. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 35, 1437–1448 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.35.2007.3.8
- winter wheat
- visually scabby kernels