Importance of Secondary Traits in Improvement of Maize (Zea mays L.) for Enhancing Tolerance to Excessive Soil Moisture Stress

Abstract

Selection on the basis of grain yield per se for improved performance under excessive moisture stress has often been misleading and considered inefficient. We assessed the importance of secondary traits of adaptive value under waterlogging stress. During the 2000–2004 summer-rainy seasons twelve trials were conducted and a total of 436 tropical/subtropical inbred lines (S4–Sn) were evaluated under excessive soil moisture stress. Excessive moisture treatment was applied at V6–7 growth stage by flooding the experimental plots continuously for seven days. Different phenological and physiological parameters were recorded before, during and either immediately or 1–2 weeks after exposure to stress. Excessive moisture conditions significantly affected all the morphological and physiological traits studied. However, there was significant genetic variability for various traits, especially for root porosity and brace root development that were induced under excessive moisture. Across the trials, significant genetic correlations (p<0.01) was obtained between grain yield and different secondary traits, including ears per plant, root porosity, brace root fresh weight, number of nodes with brace roots and anthesis silking interval. Broad-sense heritability decreased under excessive moisture stress conditions for most of the traits; however, it increased significantly for root porosity, nodal root development and ears per plant. Our findings suggest that consideration of these secondary traits during selection of maize germplasm for excessive moisture tolerance can improve selection efficiency and genetic gains.

References

  1. AICRP, 2006. Directors’ report, 49th Annual Maize Workshop of All India Coordinated Maize Research Project, held at Birsa Agriculture University, Ranchi, India, 4–6 April 2006.

  2. Banziger, M., Lafitte, H.R. 1997. Efficiency of secondary traits for improving maize for low-nitrogen target environments. Crop Sci. 37:1110–1117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Blum, A. 1988. Plant Breeding for Stress Environments. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bolaños, J., Edmeades, G.O., 1993. Eight cycles of selection for drought tolerance in lowland tropical maize. II. Responses in reproductive behavior. Field Crop Res. 31:253–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bolaños, J., Edmeades, G.O. 1996. The importance of anthesis-silking interval in breeding for drought tolerance in tropical maize. Field Crop Res. 48:65–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. CIMMYT 1999. A user’s manual for field book 5.1/7.1 and alpha. CIMMYT, Mexico, pp. 42–48.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Edmeades, G.O., Daynard, T.B. 1979. The development of plant-to-plant variability in maize at different planting densities. Can. J. Plant Sci. 59:561–576.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Emes, M.J., Wilkins, C.P., Smith, P.A., Kepkanchanakul, K., Hawker, K., Charlton, N.A., Cutter, E.G. 1987. Starch utilization by deep water rises during submergence. Proceeding of the International Deep water Rice Workshop, Manila, Philippines. International Rice Research Institute, pp. 319–336.

  9. Hallauer, A.R., Miranda, J.B.F. 1981. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Jensen, C.R., Luxmoore, R.J., Gundy, S.D., Stolzy, L.H. 1969. Root air space measurement by a pycnometer method. Agron. J. 61:474–475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Khera, A.S., Dillon, B.S., Saxena, V.K., Barar, H.S., Malhi, N.S. 1990. Genetic and Physiological Studies in Maize on Tolerance to Stress Caused by Waterlogged Conditions. Ad-hoc project, ICAR, New Delhi, India.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Liu, X.Z., Wang, Z.L., Gao, Y.Z. 1991. The relationship between alcohol dehydrogenase and flooding tolerance in maize roots under water logging stress. Jiangsu. J. Agric. Sci. 7:1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  13. McCready, R.M., Goggolz, J., Silviera, V., Owens, H.S. 1950. Determination of starch and amylose in vegetables. Anal. Chem. 22:1156–1158.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Noordwijk, M.V., Brouwer, G. 1988. Quantification of air-filled root porosity: a comparison of two methods. Plant and Soil 111:255–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Patterson H.D., Williams, E.R. 1976. A new classes of resolvable incomplete block designs. Biometrika 63:83–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rathore, T.R., Warsi, M.Z.K., Zaidi, P.H., Singh, N.N. 1997. Water logging problem for maize production in Asian region. TAMNET News Letter 4:13–14.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Singh, R.K., Chaudhary, B.D. 1979. Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis. Kalyani Publishers, Rajendra Nagar, Ludhiana, India.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Somogyi, M. 1952. Notes on sugar determination. J. Biol. Chem. 95:19–23.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Zaidi, P.H., Rafique, S., Singh, N.N. 2003. Response of maize genotypes to excess moisture stress: morpho-physiological effects & basis of tolerance. Eur J. Agron. 19:383–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Zaidi, P.H., Rafique, S., Rai, P.K., Singh, N.N., Srinivasan, G. 2004. Tolerance to excess moisture in maize (Zea mays L.): Susceptible crop stages and identification of tolerant genotypes. Field Crop Res. 90:189–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Zaidi, P.H., Singh, N.N. 2001. Effect of water logging on growth, biochemical compositions and reproduction in maize. J. Plant Biol. 28:61–69.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. H. Zaidi.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zaidi, P.H., Maniselvan, P., Sultana, R. et al. Importance of Secondary Traits in Improvement of Maize (Zea mays L.) for Enhancing Tolerance to Excessive Soil Moisture Stress. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 35, 1427–1435 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.35.2007.3.7

Download citation

Keywords

  • maize
  • secondary traits
  • waterlogging