Five giant embryo mutants, described as MH-gel, MH-ge2, MH-ge3, MH-ge4 and MH-ge5, which were derived from the same indica rice cv. ‘Minghui 86’ and characterized by 2.0, 1.88, 2.08, 1.93 and 1.88 times enlarged embryo than that of wild type, were selected for the current study. The mutated giant embryos were controlled by a single recessive gene, and except mutated locus with MH-ge1 other four loci were allelic to each other and the previous reported locus ge in japonica rice cv. ‘Kinmaze’. No obvious differences in physicochemical properties such as apparent amylose content (AAC), alkali spreading value (ASV), gel consistency (GC), and starch paste viscosity were observed between giant embryo mutants and wild type. Significant increases in the contents of crude lipid (LC), crude protein (PC), Vitamin B1 (VB1), Vitamin B2 (VB2), Vitamin E (VE), essential amino acids such as Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp), Glutamic acid (Glu), Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), and mineral elements such as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) were detected in brown rice (BR) of giant embryo mutants. The amounts of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, were similar in the BR of giant embryo mutants and wild type, and more GABA content was observed in germinated brown rice (GBR) than BR. Significant enrichments were detected in the GBR of giant embryo mutants, basically corresponding to the enlarged embryo.
AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists), 1995. Approved methods the AACC (9th ed.) Method 08-10. The Association, St. Paul, MN.
Beyer, P., Al-Babili, S., Ye, X., Lucca, P., Schaub, P., Welsch, R., Potrykus, I. 2002. Golden rice: introducing the β-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency. J. Nutr. 132:506S–510S.
Bouis, H.E. 2002. Plant breeding: a new tools for fighting micronutrient malnutrition. J. Nutr. 132:491S–494S.
Cagampang, G., Perez, C., Juliano, B.O. 1973. A gel consistency test for eating quality of rice. J. Sci. Food Agric. 24:1589–1594.
Deng, Z., Zhang, J., Lin, M., Zheng, J., Luo, J., Xie, H., Huang, X. 2002. Breeding and utilization of super hybrid rice IIyouming86. Sanming Agric. Technol. 92(1):18–20.
Fang, G., Liu, N. 2001. Determination of eight essential amino acids in mixtures by chemometrics-spectrophotometry without separation. Analytica Chemica Acta 445:245–253.
Gao, Y., Jing, Y., Shen, S., Tian, S., Kuang, T., Sun Samuel, S.M. 2001. Transfer of lys-rich protein gene into rice and production of fertile transgenic plants. Acta Botanica Sinica 43(5):506–511.
GB/T12390-90, 1990. The Major Nutrition Determination Method for Vitamin B1. Chinese National Standard Publishing, Beijing. pp. 1–3.
GB/T12391-90, 1990. The Major Nutrition Determination Method for Vitamin B2. Chinese National Standard Publishing, Beijing. pp. 1–2.
GB/T5413.6.9-97, 1997. The Major Nutrition Determination Method for Vitamin E. Chinese National Standard Publishing, Beijing. pp. 1–4.
Gregorio, G.B., Senadhira, D., Htut, T., Graham, R.D. 2000. Breeding for trace mineral density in rice. Food Nutr. Bull. 21:382–386.
Hong, S.K., Kitano, H., Satoh, H., Nagato, Y. 1996. How is embryo size genetically regulated in rice. Development 22:2051–2058.
Juliano, B.O., Pascual, C.G. 1980. Quality characteristics of milled rice grown in different countries. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) Research Paper Series 48:25.
Krishnan, H.B. 1999. Characterization of high-lysine mutants of rice. Crop Sci. 39:825–831.
Larson, S.R., Rutger, J.N., Yonng, K.A., Raboy, V. 2000. Isolation and genetic mapping of a non-lethal rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid 1 mutation. Crop Sci. 40:1397–1405.
Little, R.R., Hilder, G.B., Dawson, E.H. 1958. Differential effect of dilute alkali on 25 varieties of milled white rice. Cereal Chem. 35:111–126.
Matsuo, T., Satoh, H., Yoon, K.M., Omura, T. 1987. Oil content and fatty acid composition of a giant embryo mutant. Japan J. Breed. 37:185–191.
Okuno, K. 2004. Germplasm enhancement and breeding strategies for crop quality in Japan. 4th International Crop Science Congress. Sep 26–1 Oct. Brisbane, Australia. http://www.cropscience.org/au/icsc2004/symposia/5/1/2135_okuno.htm
Popkin, B., Horton, S., Kim, S. 2001. The nutrition transition and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases in Asia and the Pacific. Manila (Philippines): Asia Development Bank.
Rasmussen, S.K., Josefsen, L., Leung, H., Sørensen, M.B. 2003. Improving the bioavailability of iron and zinc: low-phytate rice mutant. In: Mew, T.W., Brar, D.S., Peng, S., Dawe, D., Hardy, B. (eds). Rice Science: Innovations and Impact for Livelihood. IRRI, Manila, Philippines, pp. 403–412.
Saikusa, T., Horino, T., Mori, Y. 1994a. Distribution of free amino acids in the rice kernel and kernel fractions and effect of water soaking on the distribution. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1122–1125.
Saikusa, T., Horino, T., Mori, Y. 1994b. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba) in the rice germ during water soaking. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 58:2291–2292.
Satoh, H., Omura, T. 1981. New endosperm mutations induced by chemical mutagens in rice, Oryza sativa L. Japan J. Breed. 131(3):316–326.
Shu, Q., Wu, D., Xia, Y., Gao, M., McClung, A. 1998. The relationship of eating quality of cooked rice and RVA profiles characteristics. Scientia Agric. Agrinom. Sinica 31(3):25–29.
Tadashi A., Kurozumi, Y., Yao, W.B., Ubuka, T. 1998. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of β-alanine, β-aminoisobutyric, and γ-aminobutyric acid in tissue extract and urine of normal and (aminooxy) acetate-treated rats. J. Chromatography B 712:43–49.
Wahlqvist, M.L. 2002. Food and Nutrition in Australia, Asia and the Pacific. Allen & Unwin, New South Wales (Australia).
Welch, R.M. 2000. Breeding strategies for biofortified staple plant foods to reduce micronutrient malnutrition globally. J. Nutr. 132:495S–499S.
Zhao, Z., Jiang, J. 2002. Preliminary study on high-nutritive and functional large embryo rice. Acta Agric. Shanghai 18(suppl.):5–8.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, L.L., Shu, X.L., Wang, X.Y. et al. Characterization of Indica-Type Giant Embryo Mutant Rice Enriched with Nutritional Components. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 35, 1459–1468 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.35.2007.3.10
- giant embryo
- nutritional components