Advertisement

Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 689–696 | Cite as

Studies on the Adaptability of Maize Hybrids under Various Ecological Conditions

  • Z. Hegyi
  • T. Spitkó
  • C. Szőke
  • F. Rácz
  • T. Berzy
  • J. Pintér
  • L. C. Marton
Article

Abstract

The adaptability of twelve single cross maize hybrids was investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear.

Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpöcs, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R2=0.66). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.

Key words

maize hybrid adaptability location effect year effect yield yield components assimilating leaf area 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berényi, D. (1945) A kukorica termelése és összeftiggése az időjárással. (Maize production and its correlation with the weather.) Alföldi Magvető. Debrecen.Google Scholar
  2. Dornescu, A. (1979) Expression of the intensity of heterosis in maize under various environmental conditions. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institutul Agronomic “Ion Ionescu de la Brad”. Agronomic 23: 35–38.Google Scholar
  3. Duncan, W. G. (1975) Maize. In: Crop Physiology. Ed.: Evans, L. T. Cambridge University. Press Cambridge. 23–50.Google Scholar
  4. Gyenesné Hegyi Zs. (2000) A beltenyésztett törzsek és a hibridek terméselemeinek stabilitása. (Stability of yield components in inbred lines and hybrids.) Marton Vásár. 2000/2.Google Scholar
  5. Gyenesné Hegyi Zs., Pók I., Illés O., Szőke Cs., Kizmus L., Marton L. Cs. (2002) Effect of growing site, plant density and year on the yield components of maize hybrids. Növénytermelés. 50: 425–435.Google Scholar
  6. Hallauer, A. R., Miranda, J. B. (1981) Hereditary variance: Experimental estimates. In: Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding. Ed.: The Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 115–158.Google Scholar
  7. Horner, E. S., Chapman, W. H, Lundy H. W., Lutrick, M. C. (1971) Hybrid-environmental interactions in corn. Proceedings, Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida. 31: 64–66.Google Scholar
  8. Kapás, S. (1961) A kukorica fajtabírálat egyes kérdései. (Questions involved in the adjudication of maize varieties.) Növényfajtaminősitő Tanács Titkárságanak Kiadványa. Budapest. 152–158.Google Scholar
  9. Kim, S. K. (1975) Genotypes x environmental interactions of several agronomic traits of maize. Korean Journal of Breeding Yuk Jong Hak Joi Ji. 7: 3, 163–169.Google Scholar
  10. Lucas, E. O., Remison, S. U. (1984) Effect of population density on yield and dry-matter partition of maize varieties in Nigeria. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 54: 4, 284–290.Google Scholar
  11. Marton, L. Cs., Berzsenyi, Z., Szundy, T., Árendás, T., Bónis, P. (1999) Különböző tenyészidejű kukoricahibridek termőképességének és szemnedvességéenek összehasonlitó értékelése. (Comparative evaluation of the yield potential and grain moisture of maize hybrids with various vegetation periods.) In: Tiszántúli Mezőgazdasági Tud. Napok. Eds.: Ruzsányi, L., Lesznyak, Mné., Jávor, A. Debrecen 85–89.Google Scholar
  12. Mathur, R. K., Chuni, L., Bhatnagar, S. K., Jain, V. K., Gor, H. K. (1997) Effect of growing conditions on character association in maize (Zea mays L.). Annals of Agricultural Research. 18:4, 503–507.Google Scholar
  13. Pavlicic, J. (1974) Variability of some quantitative characters of domestic types of maize flints (Montenegro flints). Savremena Poljoprivreda. 22:9-10, 49–57.Google Scholar
  14. Polerecky, O. (1976) Yield and yield components of newly-bred high-yielding grain maize hybrids. Rostlinna Vyroba. 22:10, 1021–1027.Google Scholar
  15. Salazar, A. M., Hallauer, A. R., (1986) Divergent mass selection for ear length in maize. Revista Brasileira de Genetica. 9:2, 281–294.Google Scholar
  16. Seka, D., Cross, H. Z. (1995) Xenia and maternal effect on agronomic traits at three plant densities. Crop Science. 35: 86–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Szél, S. (1998): Hibridválasztás. Amit a kukoricatermesztéről a gyakorlatban tudni kell. (Choice of hybrids. All you need to know about maize production in practice.) Eds.: Sziberth D., Széll E. Agroinform Kiadó.Google Scholar
  18. Veneni, M. (1974) Studium komponentov urodnosti niektorych zavlazovanych hyridov kukurice. Vedecke Prace Vyskumneho Ustavu Zavlahoveho Hospodarstva v Bratislave. 1971–1972. 9: 147–178.Google Scholar
  19. Villax, Ö. (1944) Növénynemesítés. I. (Plant Breeding. I.) Magyaróvár.Google Scholar
  20. Vulchinkov S., Vulchinkova P., Tomov N. (1995) Effect of genotype and environmental conditions on variation in harvest index in maize hybrids. Rasteniev”dni-Nauki. 32: 1–2, 104–107.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2005

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Hegyi
    • 1
  • T. Spitkó
    • 1
  • C. Szőke
    • 1
  • F. Rácz
    • 1
  • T. Berzy
    • 1
  • J. Pintér
    • 1
  • L. C. Marton
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesMartonvásárHungary

Personalised recommendations