Studies on the Adaptability of Maize Hybrids under Various Ecological Conditions
The adaptability of twelve single cross maize hybrids was investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear.
Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpöcs, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R2=0.66). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.
Key wordsmaize hybrid adaptability location effect year effect yield yield components assimilating leaf area
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