Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 260–271 | Cite as

Impact of Multiple Insect-Pest Incidence on Yield in Basmati Rice

  • P. S. SaraoEmail author
  • P. S. Shera
  • P. Singh


The experiments for determining the multiple insect-pest incidence on yield loss in basmati rice was conducted for two crop seasons. Five treatments were, viz. application of imidacloprid in vegetative stage; application of granular insecticide in vegetative stage; application of higher dose of Urea; augmentive releases of yellow stem borer egg mass at vegetative and booting stage; untreated control. During both the years, the correlation between grain yield and dead heart, leaf folder damage and planthopper population at 50 and 65 DAT and white ear at maturity was negative. The analysis of variance of regression analysis of yield Vs damage levels at different crop growth stages during both the years revealed a significant linear relationship. The yield loss was highly related to incidence of stem borer and leaf folder damage at 50 and 65 DAT during both the years. For integrated pest management, effective monitoring of stem borer and leaf folder from 50 to 65 DAT is required, which appeared as a critical crop growth stage. The farmers should remain cautious during this period to prevent yield loss.


basmati rice leaf folder planthopper stem borer yield loss 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous 2006. Progress Report. Entomology and Plant Pathology (Vol. 2). All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Programme (ICAR). Hyderabad, India, 75 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous 2013. Package of practices for crops of Punjab. Directorate of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University. Ludhiana, India, 25 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Bottrell, D.G., Schoenly, K.G. 2012. Resurrecting the ghost of green revolutions past: The brown planthopper as a recurring threat to high-yielding rice production in tropical Asia. J. Asia Pacific Ent. 15:122–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brookes, G., Barfoot, P. 2003. GM Rice: Will this lead the way for global acceptance of GM crop technology? Brief No. 28. Los Banos, Philippines, 45 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Chakraborty, K. 2011. Influence of inorganic N fertilizer on plant characters, yield generation and the incidence of yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in the field of local scented paddy cultivar Tulaipanji. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharmaceutical Tech. 2:264–273.Google Scholar
  6. Dhawan, A.K., Mahal, M.S., Sarao, P.S., Virk, J.S., Suri, K.S., Singh, P., Singh, R. 2010. Relative efficacy of new granular formulation against stem borers and leaf folder on basmati rice. J. Insect Sci. 23:414–419.Google Scholar
  7. Ge, L.Q., Wan, D.J., Xu, J., Jiang, L.B., Wu, J.C. 2013. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium manipulation on the Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 106:196–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd edn. Wiley-Interscience. New York, USA. p. 653.Google Scholar
  9. Heong, K.L., Hardy, B. 2009. Planthoppers: New Threats to the sustainability of Intensive Rice Production Systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute. Los Baños, Philippines, 460 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Horgan, F. 2009. Mechanisms of resistance: A major gap in understanding planthopper-rice interactions. In: Heong, K.L., Hardy, B. (eds), Planthoppers: New Threats to the Sustainability of Intensive Rice Production Systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute. Los Baños, Philippines, pp. 281–302.Google Scholar
  11. Karthikeyan, K., Jacob, S., Purushothaman, P., Revi, S. 2008. Bioefficacy of phosphamidon granules in the management of major rice pests. Indian J. Pl. Prot. 36:128–129.Google Scholar
  12. Krishnaiah, N.V., Lakshmi, V.J. 2012. Rice brown planthopper migration in India and its relevance to Punjab. J. Insect Sci. 25:231–236.Google Scholar
  13. Kulagod, S.D., Hegde, M.G., Nayak, G.V., Vastrad, A.S., Hugar, P.S. 2011. Influence of fertilizer on the incidence of insect pests in paddy. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 24:241–243.Google Scholar
  14. Kumar, R., Singh, B., Mandal, K., Kar, A., Sarao, P.S. 2013. Bioefficacy and fate of fipronil and its metabolites in basmati rice under sub-tropical climatic conditions. Crop Prot. 45:41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lu, Z.X., Heong, K.L., Yu, X.P., Hu, C. 2004. Effects of plant nitrogen on ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, in rice. J. Asia-Pacific Ento. 7:97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu, Z.X., Heong, K.L., Yu, X.P., Hu, C. 2005. Effects of nitrogen nutrient on the behavior of feeding and oviposition of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, on IR64. J. Zhejiang Uni. Agric. Life Sci. 31:62–70.Google Scholar
  17. Matsumura, M., Morimura, S.S. 2010. Recent status of insecticide resistance in Asian planthoppers. Japan Agric. Res. Quart. 41:225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Muralidharan, K., Pasalu, I.C. 2006. Assessments of crop losses in rice ecosystems due to stem borer damage (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Crop Prot. 25:409–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Padmavathi, Ch., Katti, G., Padmakumari, A.P., Voleti, S.R., SubbaRao, L.V. 2013. The effect of leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] injury on the plant physiology and yield loss in rice. J. Applied Ento. 137:249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pandey, S.K. 2003. Influence of different levels nitrogen on the incidence of major insect pests of rice. J. Ento. Res. 27:341–345.Google Scholar
  21. Patel, V.S., Patel, B.H., Desai, N.D. 1986. Relative damage and losses due to insect pests on paddy. Pesticides 20:24–26.Google Scholar
  22. Ramasamy, C., Jaliecksono, T. 1996. Inter country comparison of insect and disease losses. In: Evanson, R.E.R.W., Herdt, W., Hossain, M. (eds), Rice Research in Asia: Progress and Priorities. CAB International and IRRI, Philippines, 26 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Ramzan, M., Hussain, S., Akhter, M. 2007. Incidence of insect pests on rice crop under various nitrogen doses. J. Animal and Pl. Sci. 17:67–69.Google Scholar
  24. Rubia, E.G., Penning de, V.F.W.T. 1990. Simulation of rice yield reduction caused by stem borers. International Rice Res. Newslet. 15:34.Google Scholar
  25. Sarao, P.S., Mahal, M.S. 2008a. Incidence of insect pests of rice agro-ecosystem at different levels of nitrogen in Punjab. J. Insect Sci. 21:127–132.Google Scholar
  26. Sarao, P.S., Mahal, M.S. 2008b. Comparative efficacy of insecticides against major insect pests of rice in Punjab. Pesticide Res. J. 20:52–58.Google Scholar
  27. Sarao, P.S., Kaur, H., Kaur, R., Mangat, G.S., Singh, K. 2012. Bio-efficacy of new insecticide against lepidopteran insect-pests of rice. Crop Improvement 39:1021–1022.Google Scholar
  28. Sardesai, N., Rajyashri, K.R., Behura, S.K., Nair, S., Mohan, M. 2001. Genetic, physiological and molecular interactions of rice with its major dipteran pest, gall midge. Pl. Cell Tissue Organ Culture 64:115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Selvaraj, K., Chander, S., Sujithra, M. 2012. Determination of multiple-species economic injury levels for rice insect pests. Crop Prot. 32: 150–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh, B., Sarao, P.S., Mahal, M.S. 2009. Comparative bioefficacy of granular insecticides against major insect lepidopteran pests of basmati rice in Punjab. J. Insect Sci. 22:431–434.Google Scholar
  31. Xiao, M.K. 1990. Preliminary study on relationship between leaf sheath rotted disease and rice leaf roller. Pl. Prot. 16:19–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2015

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rice Section, Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Statistics Section, Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations