Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 613–625 | Cite as

Experimental Determination of Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Viscosity of Triticale

  • L. Levy HänerEmail author
  • P. Stamp
  • M. Kreuzer
  • A. Bouguennec
  • D. Pellet


Low viscosity in cereals is important for monogastric livestock feeding. With respect to triticale, knowledge on the variability of its viscosity and its environmental dependence is deplorably low. Six winter varieties with similar earliness at maturity were chosen that covered a large range of potential applied viscosity (PAV) (individual values ranging from 1.8 to 4.9 ml/g). These were cultivated in four locations in Switzerland, at altitudes ranging between 430 and 700 m a.s.l., in 2008 and 2009. The effect of genotype on the PAV was significant and clearly influenced by the location factor. Although variety × location and variety × year interactions were rather low, they were still very important for the PAV compared with other variables such as grain yield and specific grain weight. The PAV expression of one variety seemed not to be susceptible to environmental conditions. The varietal range in viscosity demonstrates a high potential for breeding to raise quality, especially as the viscosity and the grain yield were not correlated. The favourable relationship between the PAV and protein content found in the present study may provide a further incentive to improve this trait to yield high-quality triticale. Existing variability might be used to guide the choice of favourable varieties.


viscosity genotype by environment interaction protein variety triticale 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bedford, M.R., Scott, T.A., Silversides, F.G., Classen, H.L., Swift, M.L., Pack, M. 1998. The effect of wheat cultivar, growing environment, and enzyme supplementation on digestibility of amino acids by broilers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78:335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boros, D. 1999. Influence of R genome on the nutritional value of triticale for broiler chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 76:219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouguennec, A., Oury, F.X., Jestin, L. 2001. Viscosity related to arabinoxylans in triticale — genetic and environmental variation in France. Züchtungsforschung bei Triticale — Stand und Perspektiven — Vortragstagung 6–7. Dezember 2000, Universität Hohenheim, Germany und GPZ — Dokumente 5 aus der AG (9) Geschichte der Pflanzenzüchtung, (ISSN: 0723-7812) Saatgut-Treuhandverwaltungs-GmbH, Bonn, Germany, pp. 161–169. (in German)Google Scholar
  4. Carré, B., Gomez, J., Melcion, J.P., Giboulot, B. 1994. La viscosité des aliments destinés à l’aviculture: utilisation pour prédire la consommation et l’excrétion d’eau (The viscosity of poultry feeds: utilisation for predicting water consumption and excretion). INRA Prod. Anim. 7:369–379. (in French)Google Scholar
  5. Carré, B., Oury, F.-X. 2001. Rapport final du projet CTPS, bilan de la partie «blé pour l’alimentation animale» (Final report of the CTPS project, conclusions of the part “Wheat for Animal Nutrition“). Comité Technique Permanent de la Sélection des plantes cultivées (CTPS), Secrétariat CS — CTPS GEVES — Rue Georges Morel, BP 90024, 49 071 BEAUCOUZE Cedex, France. (in French)Google Scholar
  6. Choct, M., Annison, G. 1990. Anti-nutritive activity of wheat pentosans in poultry diets. Brit. Poultry Sci. 31:809–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cyran, M., Lapinski, B. 2006. Physico-chemical characteristics of dietary fibre fractions in the grains of tetraploid and hexaploid triticales: A comparison with wheat and rye. Plant Breed. Seed Sci. 54:77–84.Google Scholar
  8. Dornez, E., Gebruers, K., Joye, I.J., De Ketelaere, B., Lenartz, J., Massaux, C., Bodson, B., Delcour, J.A., Courtin, C.M. 2008a. Effects of genotype, harvest year and genotype-by-harvest year interactionss on arabinoxylan, endoxylanase activity and endoxylanase inhibitor levels in wheat kernels. J. Cereal Sci. 47:180–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dornez, E., Gebruers, K., Joye, I.J., De Ketelaere, B., Lenartz, J., Massaux, C., Bodson, B., Delcour, J.A., Courtin, C.M. 2008b. Effects of fungicide treatment, N-fertilisation and harvest date on arabinoxylan, endoxylanase activity and endoxylanase inhibitor levels in wheat kernels. J. Cereal Sci. 47:190–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gan, Y., McLeod, J.G., Scoles, G.J., Campbell, G.L. 1996a. Genetic and environmental influence on the extract viscosity of winter rye. Plant Breed Seed Sci. 40:93–102.Google Scholar
  11. Gan, Y., McLeod, J.G., Scoles, G.J., Campbell, G.L. 1996b. Extract viscosity of winter rye: heritability and correlation to kernel characters. Plant Breed Seed Sci. 40:103–112.Google Scholar
  12. Goncharenko, A.A., Timoshchenko, A.S., Berkutova, N.S., Ermakov, S.A., Makarov, A.V., Semenova, T.V., Tochilin, V.N., Lazareva, E.N., Tsygankova, N.V., Krakhnalev, S.V. 2011. Divergent selection for water-extract viscosity in winter rye. Russian Agric. Sci. 37:273–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grosjean, F., Barrier-Guillot, B. 1996. Les polysaccharides non amylacés des céréales (Non-starch polysaccharides of cereals). Journée de l’Association Française des Techniciens de l’Alimentation Animale, Paris, France. (in French)Google Scholar
  14. Grosjean, F., Barrier-Guillot, B., Métayer, J.-P. 1998. Alimentation des poulets. Un lien entre la viscosité et la valeur alimentaire des blés (Broiler nutrition. A link between viscosity and the nutrition value of wheat). Perspectives Agricoles 239:27–29. (in French)Google Scholar
  15. Grosjean, F., Saulnier, L., Magnin, M., Flatres, M., Le Pavec, P., Victoire, C., Maupetit, M., Beaux, M.F. 1997. Variabilité de la viscosité de l’extrait aqueux des lots de blé français utilisés dans l’alimentation des volailles (Variability of the viscosity of the water extract from French wheat lots used for poultry nutrition). Deuxièmes Journées de la Recherche Avicole, 8–10 Avril, Tours, France. (in French)Google Scholar
  16. Hong, B.H., Rubenthaler, G.L., Allan, R.E. 1989. Wheat pentosans. I. Cultivar variation and relationship to kernel hardness. Cereal Chem. 66:369–373.Google Scholar
  17. Idi, A. 1997. Effets de la viscosité générée par les arabinoxylanes hydrosolubles du blé sur les digestions chez le poulet (Effects of viscosity induced by water-soluble arabinoxylans of wheat on the digestion in broiler chickens). D.E.A. de Nutrition Université de Aix-Marseille II et III; Institut National Agronomique, Paris-Grignon, France. (in French)Google Scholar
  18. Martinant, J.P., Cadalen, T., Billot, A., Chartier, S., Leroy, P., Bernard, M., Saulnier, L., Branlard, G. 1998. Genetic analysis of water-extractable arabinoxylans in bread wheat endosperm. Theor. Appl. Gen. 97:1069–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Masson, E., Vialles, J.L., Chabanel, Y., Bernicot, M.H., Skiba, F., Vilariño, M. 2004. Utilisation du triticale pour l’alimentation des porcs et des volailles (Utilisation of triticale for swine and poultry nutrition; ISBN 13:9782864926481). Arvalis institut du vegetal, Paris, France. (in French)Google Scholar
  20. McCracken, K.J., McNab, J.M. 2000. Nutritional value to broilers of wheat of low specific weight. Brit. Poultry Sci. 41:694–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McGoverin, C.M., Snyders, F., Muller, N., Botes, W., Fox, G., Manley, M. 2011. A review of triticale uses and the effect of growth environment on grain quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:1155–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mergoum, M., Gómez-Macpherson, H. 2004. Triticale improvement and production. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 179, Rome, Italy (ISBN 92-5-105182-8), p. 154.Google Scholar
  23. Moss, A.R., Givens, D.I., Froment, M.A., Lunn, G. 1999. Factors affecting the nutritive value of wheat for ruminants. Report for the Home-Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) Project, Report No. 182. London, UK.Google Scholar
  24. Oury, F.X., Carré, B., Pluchard, P., Bérard, P., Nys, Y., Leclercq, B. 1998. Genetic variability and stability of poultry feeding related characters in wheat, in relation to environmental variation. Agronomie 18:139–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ryser, J.-P., Walther, U., Flisch, R. 2001. DBF 2001 — données de base pour la fumure des grandes cultures et des herbages (Recommendations for fertilisation of field and fodder crops). Revue suisse d’agriculture 33 (3):1–80. (in French)Google Scholar
  26. Schori, A., Fossati, D., Mascher, F., Fossati, A. 2007. Amélioration génétique du triticale à Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (Triticale breeding at Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil). Revue suisse d’agriculture 39:129–136. (in French)Google Scholar
  27. Shewry, P.R., Piironen, V., Lampi, A.-M., Edelmann, M., Kariluoto, S., Nurmi, T., Fernandez-Orozco, R., Ravel, C., Charmet, F., Andersson, A.A.M., Aman, P., Boros, D., Gebruers, K., Dornez, E., Courtin, C.M., Delcour, J.A., Rakszegi, M., Bedo, Z., Ward, J.L. 2010. The HEALTHGRAIN wheat diversity screen: Effects of genotype and environment on phytochemicals and dietary fibre components. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:9291–9298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stewart, A.H., Acamovic, T., Taylor, A.G., Fraser, H. 1997. An evaluation of wheat specific weight as a determinant of nutritive value for pigs and poultry. BSAS. Scarborough, UK. Proc. Brit. Soc. Anim. Sci. p. 66.Google Scholar
  29. Vilariño, M. 2008. La viscosité spécifique, un critère à surveiller en alimentation des volailles (The specific viscosity, a criterion to monitore in poultry nutrition). News@lim, No 18 juillet 2008. Online at: Accessed 30 October 2012. (in French)

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2013

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Levy Häner
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Stamp
    • 2
  • M. Kreuzer
    • 2
  • A. Bouguennec
    • 3
    • 4
  • D. Pellet
    • 1
  1. 1.Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACWNyonSwitzerland
  2. 2.ETH Zurich Institute of Agricultural SciencesZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.INRAClermont-FerrandFrance
  4. 4.UBPClermont-FerrandFrance

Personalised recommendations