Skip to main content

Effects of Environmental Factors on Sperm Motility and Fertilization Rate of Phascolosoma esculenta

Abstract

The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 for sperm activation and motility, whereas the ranges for fertilization were narrower (18.56 to 30.3 for salinity and 6.46 to 8.61 for pH). Of the ions studied, Na+ was indispensable for sperm motility and fertilization, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ were necessary for fertilization. P. esculenta sperm could not fertilize eggs and have short lifespans in 200 to 600 mmol/L NaCl and KCl solutions. Furthermore, they could not be activated or move in 200 to 600 mmol/L CaCl2, MgSO4, and sucrose solutions.

References

  1. 1.

    Alavi, S. M. H., Rodina, M., Policar, T., Linhart, O. (2009) Relationship between semen characteristics and body size in Barbus barbus L. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) and effects of ions and osmolality on sperm motility. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 153, 430–437.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Alavi, S. M. H., Cosson, J. (2006) Sperm motility in fishes. (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: A review. Cell Biol. Int. 30, 1–14.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Boni, R., Gualtieri, R., Talevi, R., Tosti, E. (2007) Calcium and other ion dynamics during gamete maturation and fertilization. Theriogenology 68, 156–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cai, Y. C., Lin, H. Z., Wu, K. C., Li, Y. N., Su, T. F., Jiang, S. G. (2001) Activation conditions of spermatozoa from dissected parent Pinctada margaritifera. J. Fish Sci. China 8, 9–12.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Deng, Y. S., Lin, H. R. (1999) Advance in fish sperm motility. Life Sci. Res. 4, 271–278.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gu, X. Y., Zhu, J. Q., Xu, S. J., You, Z. J., Wang, W. (2009) Oogenesis of Phascolosoma esculenta: histological study. Oceanol. et Limnol. Sin. 40, 283–288.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    He, Q., Zhao, E., Lu, Y. L., Yan, M. C., Huang, C. J., Dong, Q. X. (2012) Evaluation of activation and storage conditions for sperm of yellow drum Nibea albiflora. Aquaculture 324–325, 319–322.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hu, J. H., Zhang, S. C., Zhang, Y. Z., Xu, Y. Y. (2006) Motility characteristics of the sperm of the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauensis as revealed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Acta Zool. Sin. 52, 706–711.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hu, J. H. (2005) Motility of spermatozoa in amphioxus and rosy barb and their application of the acute toxicity assay in vitro. Dissertation, Ocean Univ. China, Shandong, pp. 1–66.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jin, C. H., Zhu, J. Q., Xu, S. J., Wang, W. (2011) Study on the embryonic and larval development of Phascolosoma esculenta. Oceanol. et Limnol. Sin. 52, 94–100.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Jing, R., Huang, C. J., Bai, C. L., Tanguay, R., Dong, Q. X. (2009) Optimization of activation, collection, dilution, and storage methods for zebrafish sperm. Aquaculture 290, 165–171.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Li, X., Liu, S. F., Kang, L., Xu, D. X. (2002) The influence of environmental factors on sperm motion and fertilization of the abalone and oyster. J. Dalian Fish. Univ. 17, 25–30.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Morisawa, M., Morisawa, S., Santis, R. D. (1984) Initiation of sperm motility in Ciona intestinalis by calcium and cyclic AMP. Zool. Sci. 1, 237–244.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Orfão, L. H., Nascimento, A. F., Corrêa, F. M., Cosson, J., Viveiros, A. T. M. (2011) Extender composition, osmolality and cryoprotectant effects on the motility of sperm in the Brazilian endangered species Brycon opalinus (Characiformes). Aquaculture 311, 241–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Rice, M. E. (1966) Reproductive biology and development in sipuncula. Doctoral Dissertation, Univ. Wash., Seattle, pp. 46–66.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Wang, H., Zhu, X. W., Wang, Y. N., Luo, M. M., Liu, Z. G. (2012) Determination of optimum temperature and salinity for fertilization and hatching in the Chinese pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (Dunker). Aquaculture 358–359, 292–297.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Wilson-Leedy, J. G., Kanuga, M. K., Ingermann, R. L. (2009) Influence of osmolality and ions on the activation and characteristics of zebrafish sperm motility. Theriogenology 71, 1054–1062.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Yasui, G. S., Fujimoto, T., Arias-Rodriguez, L., Takagi, Y., Arai, K. (2012) The effect of ions and cryoprotectants upon sperm motility and fertilization success in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Aquaculture 344–349, 147–152.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Yu, D. H., Jiang, S. G., Chen, J. C., Su, T. F. (1999) A preliminary study on activation mechanism of spermatozoa of Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada martensii. J. Trop. Oceanogr. 18, 5–10.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yu, D. H., Chen, J. C., Su, T. F., Zhu, H., Jiang, S. G. (1998) A primary study on experimental biology of spermatozoa of Pinctada fucata (Gould). J. Trop. Oceanogr. 17, 83–87.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Zhu, J. Q., Wang, W., Ding, L. F. (2012) Ultrastructural observation on oogenesis, vitellogenesis and vitelline membrane formation during yolk-synthesizing stage in Phascolosoma esculenta. Oceanol. et Limnol. Sin. 43, 870–876.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Zhu, J. Q., Wang, W., Ying, X. P., Xu, S. J., Zeng, H. X., Chen, H. Q. (2008) Cytological changes of fertilization and early cleavage in Phascolosoma esculenta. Acta Zool. Sin. 54, 290–298.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Zhu, J. Q., Wang, W., Xu, S. J., Zeng, H. X. (2007) Spermatogenesis and sperm morphology of Phascolosoma esculenta. Acta Zool. Sin. 53, 733–741.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Zhu, J. Q., Ding, L. F., Jiao, H. F., Wang, Y. B. (2006) Effects of environmental factors on spermatozoa motility of Tegillarca granosa. Mar. Sci. 30, 65–68.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to C.-H. Jin or J.-Q. Zhu.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sheng, Z., Jiang, JH., Jin, CH. et al. Effects of Environmental Factors on Sperm Motility and Fertilization Rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 65, 274–284 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.65.2014.3.4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Phascolosoma esculenta
  • sperm motility
  • fertilization rate
  • environmental factors