Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 274–284 | Cite as

Effects of Environmental Factors on Sperm Motility and Fertilization Rate of Phascolosoma esculenta

  • Z. Sheng
  • J.-H. Jiang
  • C.-H. JinEmail author
  • S.-J. Xu
  • J.-Q. ZhuEmail author


The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 for sperm activation and motility, whereas the ranges for fertilization were narrower (18.56 to 30.3 for salinity and 6.46 to 8.61 for pH). Of the ions studied, Na+ was indispensable for sperm motility and fertilization, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ were necessary for fertilization. P. esculenta sperm could not fertilize eggs and have short lifespans in 200 to 600 mmol/L NaCl and KCl solutions. Furthermore, they could not be activated or move in 200 to 600 mmol/L CaCl2, MgSO4, and sucrose solutions.


Phascolosoma esculenta sperm motility fertilization rate environmental factors 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2014

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Marine SciencesNingbo UniversityNingbo, ZhejiangChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater FisheriesHuzhou, ZhejiangChina

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