Phytohormone and Assimilate Profiles in Emasculated Flowers of the Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during Development

Abstract

Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

Abbreviations

ABA:

abscisic acid

EB:

emasculation and bagging

GC-MS:

gas chromatographymass spectrometry

IAA:

indole-3-acetic acid

JA:

jasmonic acid

RIE:

response to injury induced by emasculation

References

  1. 1.

    Borochov, A., Woodson, W. R. (1989) Physiology and biochemistry of flower petal senescence. Hortic. Rev. 11, 15–43.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Brown, S. K., Iezzoni, A. F., Fogle, H. W. (1996) Cherries. In: Janick, J., Moore, J. N. (eds.) Fruit Breeding, vol. I: Tree and Tropical Fruits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 213–255.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chang, H., Jones, M. L., Banowetz, G. M., Clark, D. G. (2003) Overproduction of cytokinins in petunia flowers transformed with PSAG12-IPT delays corolla senescence and decreases sensitivity to ethylene. Plant Physiol. 132, 2174–2183.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Dini-papanastasi, O., Aravanopoulos, F. A. (2008) Artificial hybridization between Robinia pseudoacacia L. and R. pseudoacacia var. monophylla Carr. Forestry 81, 91–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gilbart, D. A., Sink, K. C. (1971) Regulation of endogenous indoleacetic acid and keeping quality of poinsettia. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 96, 3–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Guerra, M. E., Wünsch, A., Margarita, L. C., Rodrigo, J. (2010) Flower emasculation as the cause for lack of fruit set in Japanese plum crosses. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 135, 556–562.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hedhly, A., Hormaza, J. I., Herrero, M. (2009) Flower emasculation accelerates ovule degeneration and reduces fruit set in sweet cherry. Sci. Hortic.-Amsterdam 119, 455–457.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hoeberichts, F. A., Van Doorn, W. G., Vorst, O., Hall, R.D., van Wordragen, M. F. (2007) Sucrose prevents upregulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals. J. Exp. Bot. 58, 2873–2885.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hunter, D. A., Ferrante, A., Vernieri P., Reid, M. (2004a) Role of abscisic-acid in perianth senescence of daffodil Narcissus pseudonarcissus “Dutch Master”. Physiol. Plantarum 121, 313–321.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hunter, D. A., Yi, M. F., Xu, X. J., Reid, M. S. (2004b) Role of ethylene in perianth senescence of daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. ‘Dutch Master’). Postharvest Biol. Tec. 32, 269–280.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ichimura, K., Suto, K. (1998) Role of ethylene in acceleration of flower senescence by filament wounding in Portulaca hybrids. Physiol. Plantarum 104, 603–607.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Joseph, H. R. (1955) The determination of sugar in blood and spinal fluid with anthrone reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 212, 335–343.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Keeler, H. L. (1900) Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. Charles Scriber’s Sons, New York, pp. 97–102.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Koshita, Y., Takahara, T. (2004) Effect of water stress on flower-bud formation and plant hormone content of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). Sci. Hortic.-Amsterdam 99, 301–307.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Layne, R. E. C. (1983) Hybridization. In: Moore, J. N., Janick, J. (eds.) Methods in Fruit Breeding. Purdue University Press, Lafayette, pp. 48–73.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Lee, Y. P., Takahashi, T. (1966) An improved colorimetric determination of amino acids with the use of ninhydrin. Anal. Biochem. 14, 71–77.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Li, X., Qin, G., Chen, Z., Gu, H., Qu, L. J. (2008) A gain-of-function mutation of transcriptional factor PTL results in curly leaves, dwarfism and male sterility by affecting auxin homeostasis. Plant Mol. Biol. 66, 315–327.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mayak, S., Dilley, D. R. (1976a) Regulation of senescence in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus): effect of abscisic acid and carbon dioxide on ethylene production. Plant Physiol. 58, 663–665.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Mayak, S., Dilley, D. (1976b) Effect of sucrose on response of cut carnation flowers to kinetin, ethylene and abscisic acid. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 101, 583–585.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Okie, W. R., Weinberger, J. H. (1996) Plums. In: Janick, J., Moore, J. N. (eds). Fruit Breeding, vol. I: Tree and Tropical Fruits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 559–607.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    O’Neill, S. D. (1997) Pollination regulation of flower development. Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. Plant Mol. Biol. 48, 547–574.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Panavas, T., Walker, E., Rubinstein, B. (1998) Possible involvement of abscisic acid in senescence of daylily petals. J. Exp. Bot. 49, 1987–1997.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Porat, R., Borochov, A., Halevy, A. H. (1993) Enhancement of petunia and dendrobium flower senescence by jasmonic acid methyl ester is via the promotion of ethylene production. Plant Growth Regul. 13, 297–301.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Porat, R., Reiss, N., Atzorn, R., Halevy, A. H., Borochov, A. (1995) Examination of the possible involvement of lipoxygenase and jasmonates in pollination-induced senescence of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium orchid flowers. Physiol. Plantarum 94, 205–210.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Reid, M. S., Chen, J. C. (2007) Flower senescence. In: Gan, S. (ed.) Senescence Processes in Plants. (Series: Annual Plant Reviews, vol. 26) Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 256–277.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Ren, Z., Li, Z., Miao, Q., Yang, Y., Deng, W., Hao, Y. (2011) The auxin receptor homologue in Solanum lycopersicum stimulates tomato fruit set and leaf morphogenesis. J. Exp. Bot. 62, 2815–2826.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Robert-Seilaniantz, A., Navarro, L., Bari, R., Jones, J. D. G. (2007) Pathological hormone imbalances. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10, 372–379.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Scales, F. M. (1915) The determination of reducing sugars: a volumetric method for determining cuprous oxide without removal from fehling’s solution. J. Biol. Chem. 23, 81–87.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sun, P., Dai, L., Hu, R. Y., Xi, Y., Li, Y. F., Yuan, C. Y., Sun, Y., Li, Y. (2012) Flowering characteristics and pollination and mating patterns of Robinia pseudoacacia. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 40, 6–11 [in Chinese, English abstract].

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Ueda, J., Kato, J. (1980) Isolation and identification of a senescence-promoting substance from worm word (Artemisia absinthium L.). Plant Physiol. 66, 246–249.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Villacorta, N. F., Fernandez, H., Prinsen, E., Bernad, P. L., Revill, M. A. (2008) Endogenous hormonal profiles in hop development. J. Plant Growth Regul. 27, 93–98.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Woltering, E. J., Harren, F. (1989) Role of rostellum desiccation in emasculation-induced phenomena in orchid flowers. J. Exp. Bot. 40, 907–912.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Zhang, G. J. (2010) Selection of superior clones for fodder and cultivation and utilization in Robinia Pseudoacacia [D]. Doctoral dissertation of Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, pp. 15–23 [in Chinese, English abstract].

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Zhang, X. S., O’Neill, S. D. (1993) Ovary and gametophyte development are coordinately regulated by auxin and ethylene following pollination. Plant Cell 5, 403–418.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31170629) for financial support, and Prof. Xiangning Jiang, Ms Huajun Chen and Miss Zhaolin Lv for technical assistance.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yun Li.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sun, P., Yuan, C., Dai, L. et al. Phytohormone and Assimilate Profiles in Emasculated Flowers of the Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during Development. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 64, 364–376 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.64.2013.3.9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Robinia pseudoacacia
  • emasculation
  • controlled pollination
  • flower senescence
  • phytohormones and assimilates