Innervation of Bivalve Larval Catch Muscles by Serotonergic and FMRFamidergic Neurons
Bivalve larvae use catch muscles for rapid shell closure and maintenance of the closed condition. We used specific antibodies against the muscle proteins together with phalloidin and neuronal markers, FMRFamide and serotonin (5-HT), to analyze mutual distribution of muscle and neuronal elements in larvae of the mussel, Mytilus trossulus, and the oyster, Crassostrea gigas. At trochophore and early veliger stages no anatomical connections between muscular and nervous system were detected. By the pediveliger stage the 5-HT innervation of the anterior adductor developed in oyster only, while rich FMRFa innervation of the adductor muscles developed in both species. Possible roles and mechanisms of FMRFamide and serotonin in the regulation of the catch state are discussed.
KeywordsNervous system Mollusca development neurotransmitter muscle
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