Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 63, Supplement 2, pp 202–205 | Cite as

Origin of Automaticity and Neural Regulation of Peristalsis in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Aplysia and Lymnaea?

Short Communication
  • M. KurokawaEmail author
  • Y. Kasuya
  • T. Okamoto


We examined whether the enteric nervous system (ENS) is capable of controlling autonomous peristalsis, which occurs in the crop of Aplysia as well as in the esophagus of Lymnaea. Interestingly, “pacemaker neurons”, which lead peristaltic rhythm, were found in the gizzard in Aplysia and in the crop in Lymnaea; both of these structures are located distal to the regions exhibiting peristalsis. Thus, the bursting activity of the ENS first occurred in lower regions and then progressed in an ascending direction (i.e. in the opposite direction of peristalsis). The two species are thought to differ in terms of the mechanisms involved in producing peristalsis.


Enteric nervous system gastrointestinal tract peristalsis Aplysia Lymnaea 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2012

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesTokyo Metropolitan UniversityHachioji, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Meiji Milk Products Co. Ltd.Japan
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and Cell BiologyUniversity of Nevada School of MedicineRenoUSA

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