Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 63, Supplement 2, pp 91–95 | Cite as

GABAergic Effects on the Slow Oscillatory Neural Activities in the Procerebrum of Limax valentianus

  • S. KobayashiEmail author
  • E. Ito
Short Communication


We examined GABAergic modulation on “slow” oscillation (<1.0 Hz) of the procerebrum in the terrestrial mollusk, Limax valentianus. Short application of GABA-receptor agonists slightly increased the frequency of a periodic oscillation in the procerebrum, whereas persistent application decreased it. GABA-receptor antagonists decreased the oscillatory frequency. The GABA-like immunoreactivities were found in the neuropil and the cell body layers of the procerebrum. Because GABAergic inhibition is known to be essential for the generation of “fast” synchronous neuronal oscillation in the CNSs in othre many animals, our present findings are first evidence suggesting that GABA modulates ‘slow’ oscillation in the CNS.


GABA oscillatory neural activity local field potential procerebrum Limax 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cooke, I. R., Gelperin, A. (1988) Distribution of GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in the slug Limax maximus. Cell Tissue Res. 253, 77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kobayashi, S., Hattori, M., Ito, E. (2008) The effects of GABA on the network oscillations of the procerebrum in Limax valentianus. Acta Biol. Hung. 59, 77–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lam, Y. W., Cohen, L. B., Wachowiak, M., Zochowski, M. R. (2000) Odors elicit three different oscillations in the turtle olfactory bulb. J. Neurosci. 20, 749–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    MacLeod, K., Laurent, G. (1996) Distinct mechanisms for synchronization and temporal patterning of odor-encoding neural assemblies. Science 274, 976–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matsuo, R., Kobayashi, S., Watanabe, S., Namiki, S., Iinuma, S., Sakamoto, H., Hirose, K., Ito, E. (2009) Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the procerebrum (olfactory center) of a terrestrial mollusk. J. Neurosci. Res. 87, 3011–3023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ratté, S., Chase, R. (1997) Morphology of interneurons in the procerebrum of the snail Helix aspersa. J. Comp. Neurol. 384, 359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watanabe, S., Kawahara, S., Kirino, Y. (1999) Glutamate induces Cl–and K+ currents in the olfactory interneurons of terrestrial slug. J. Comp. Physiol. A 184, 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2012

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical SciencesTokushima Bunri UniversitySanuki, KagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations