GABAergic Effects on the Slow Oscillatory Neural Activities in the Procerebrum of Limax valentianus

Abstract

We examined GABAergic modulation on “slow” oscillation (<1.0 Hz) of the procerebrum in the terrestrial mollusk, Limax valentianus. Short application of GABA-receptor agonists slightly increased the frequency of a periodic oscillation in the procerebrum, whereas persistent application decreased it. GABA-receptor antagonists decreased the oscillatory frequency. The GABA-like immunoreactivities were found in the neuropil and the cell body layers of the procerebrum. Because GABAergic inhibition is known to be essential for the generation of “fast” synchronous neuronal oscillation in the CNSs in othre many animals, our present findings are first evidence suggesting that GABA modulates ‘slow’ oscillation in the CNS.

References

  1. 1.

    Cooke, I. R., Gelperin, A. (1988) Distribution of GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in the slug Limax maximus. Cell Tissue Res. 253, 77–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kobayashi, S., Hattori, M., Ito, E. (2008) The effects of GABA on the network oscillations of the procerebrum in Limax valentianus. Acta Biol. Hung. 59, 77–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lam, Y. W., Cohen, L. B., Wachowiak, M., Zochowski, M. R. (2000) Odors elicit three different oscillations in the turtle olfactory bulb. J. Neurosci. 20, 749–762.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    MacLeod, K., Laurent, G. (1996) Distinct mechanisms for synchronization and temporal patterning of odor-encoding neural assemblies. Science 274, 976–979.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Matsuo, R., Kobayashi, S., Watanabe, S., Namiki, S., Iinuma, S., Sakamoto, H., Hirose, K., Ito, E. (2009) Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the procerebrum (olfactory center) of a terrestrial mollusk. J. Neurosci. Res. 87, 3011–3023.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ratté, S., Chase, R. (1997) Morphology of interneurons in the procerebrum of the snail Helix aspersa. J. Comp. Neurol. 384, 359–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Watanabe, S., Kawahara, S., Kirino, Y. (1999) Glutamate induces Cl–and K+ currents in the olfactory interneurons of terrestrial slug. J. Comp. Physiol. A 184, 553–562.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Kobayashi.

Additional information

Presented during the 12th ISIN Symposium on Invertebrate Neurobiology, August 31–September 4, 2011, Tihany, Hungary.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kobayashi, S., Ito, E. GABAergic Effects on the Slow Oscillatory Neural Activities in the Procerebrum of Limax valentianus. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 63, 91–95 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.63.2012.Suppl.2.12

Download citation

Keywords

  • GABA
  • oscillatory neural activity
  • local field potential
  • procerebrum
  • Limax