Advertisement

Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 81–96 | Cite as

Essential Oil Composition and Preliminary Molecular Study of Four Hungarian Thymus Species

  • Zsuzsanna PluhárEmail author
  • Marianna Kocsis
  • Anett Kuczmog
  • S. Csete
  • Hella Simkó
  • Szilvia Sárosi
  • P. Molnár
  • Györgyi Horváth
Article

Abstract

Chemical and genetic differences of twenty taxa belonging to four Thymus species were studied in order to determine whether molecular characters and essential oil components could be used as taxonomic markers and to examine the correlation between them. Plant samples, representing different taxa and geographic regions, were collected from experimentally grown populations. Essential oil samples were analysed by GC/MS and cluster analysis of volatile composition resulted in segregation of thymol chemotypes from sesquiterpenic ones. Thymol was characteristic for all the populations of Thymus glabrescens and T. pannonicus as well as for certain taxa belonging to T. praecox and T. pulegioides. Sesquiterpenes occurred in only two taxa of T. glabrescens, in each sample of T. praecox and in three taxa of T. pulegioides. Plant samples were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The obtained dendrogram revealed high gene diversity. The 13 primers resulted 114 polymorphic RAPD bands, and the average percentage of polymorphism was 80.8%. The RAPD dendogram showed separation neither at interspecific nor at interpopulational levels. Therefore, further specific molecular studies involving more taxa are suggested. Partial correlation have been found between molecular and chemical assessments.

Keywords

Thymus spp. wild thyme taxa essential oil composition RAPD-PCR genetic variability 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Agostini, G., Echeverrigaray, S., Souza-Chies, T. T. (2008) Genetic relationships among South American species of Cunila D. Royen ex L. based on ISSR. Plant Syst. Evol. 274, 135–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Böszörményi, A., Héthelyi, É., Farkas, Á., Horváth, Gy, Papp, N., Lemberkovics, É., Szőke, E. (2009) Chemical and genetic relationships among sage (Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and judean sage (Salvia judaica Boiss.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 4663–4667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cahill, J. R (2004) Genetic diversity among varieties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.). Gen. Res. Crop Evol. 51, 773–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dajić-Stevanović, Z., Šoštarić, I., Marin, P. D., Stojanović, D., Ristić, M. (2008) Population variability in Thymus glabrescens, Willd. from Serbia: morphology, anatomy and essential oil composition. Arch. Biol. Sci. Belgr. 60, 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Echeverrigaray, S., Agostini, G., Atti-Serfini, L., Paroul, N., Pauletti, G. F., Atti dos Santos, A. C. (2001) Correlation between the chemical and genetic relationships among commercial thyme cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 4220–4223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fracaro, F., Echeverrigaray, S. (2006) Genetic variability in Hesperozygis ringens Benth. (Lamiaceae), an endangered aromatic and medicinal plant of Southern Brazil. Biochem. Gen. 44, 479–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Groendahl, E., Ehlers, B. K., Keefover-Ring, K. (2008) A new cis-sabinene hydrate chemotype detected in large thyme (Thymus pulegioides L.) growing wild in Denmark. J. Ess. Oil Res. 20, 40–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guo, W. L., Gong, L., Ding, Z. F., Li, Y. D., Li, F. X., Zhao, S. P., Liu, B. (2006) Genomic instability in phenotypically normal regenerants of medicinal plant Codonopsis lanceolata Benth. et Hook. as revealed by ISSR and RAPD markers. Plant Cell Rep. 25, 896–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lima, A. S., Trindade, A. C., Figuereido, A. C., Barroso, J. G., Pedro, L. G. (2010) Molecular and volatiles characterization of Portuguese Thymus caespititius chemotypes. Acta Horticulturae 860, 81–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Loziené, K., Vaiciuniene, J., Venskutonis, R. P. (2003) Chemical composition of the essential oil of different varieties of thyme (Thymus pulegioides) growing wild in Lithuania. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 31, 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marin, D. P., Grayer, J. R., Kite, C. G., Veljic, M. (2005) External flavons from Thymus striatus Vahl (Lamiaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 33, 1179–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mártonfi, P. (1992) Polymorphism of essential oil in Thymus pulegioides subsp. chamaedrys in Slovakia. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4, 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Michet, A., Chalchat, J. C., Figuérédo, G., Thébaud, G., Billy, F., Pétel, G. (2008) Chemotypes in the volatiles of wild thyme (T. pulegioides L.). J. Ess. Oil Res. 20, 101–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morales, R. (2002) The history, botany and taxonomy of the genus Thymus. In: Stahl-Biskup, E., Sáez, F. (eds) Thyme. The genus Thymus. Taylor & Francis, London - New York, 2002, pp. 1–43.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pharmacopoeia Hungarica, 8th ed. (2004), Medicina Könyvkiadó Rt, Budapest, Hungary, Vol. 2, pp. 2359–2360.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pluhár, Zs., Héthelyi, É., Kutta, G., Kamondy, L. (2007) Evaluation of environmental factors influencing essential oil quality of Thymus pannonicus All., and Thymus praecox Opiz. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 13, 23–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pluhár, Zs., Sárosi, Sz., Novák, L., Szabó, E., Gimesi, A., Pintér, A., Kiss, U. (2007) Evaluation of drug quality and polymorphism of Thymus pannonicus All. 38th International Symposium on Essential Oils, Graz, Austria, September 9–12, 2007. Book of Abstracts, p. 110.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pluhár, Zs., Sárosi, Sz., Novák, I., Kutta, G. (2008) Essential oil polymorphism of Hungarian common thyme (Thymus glabrescens, Willd.) populations. Nat. Prod. Comm. 3, 1151–1154.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sarwat, M., Das, S., Srivastava, P. S. (2008) Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris, a medicinal herb. Plant Cell Rep. 27, 519–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schmidt, A., Bischof-Deichnik, C., Stahl-Biskup, E. (2004) Essential oil polymorphism of Thymus praecox subsp. arcticus on the British Isles. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 32, 409–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stahl-Biskup, E. (1991) The chemical composition of Thymus oils: Areview of the Literature 1960–1989. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3, 61–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stahl-Biskup, E. (2002) Essential oil chemistry of the genus Thymus — a global view. In: Stahl-Biskup, E., Sáez, F. (eds) Thyme. The genus Thymus. Taylor & Francis, London - New York, pp. 75–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sunar, S., Aksakal, O., Yildirim, N., Agar, G., Gulluce, M., Sahin, F. (2009) Genetic diversity and relationships detected by FAME and RAPD analysis among Thymus species growing in eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Romanian Biotechnological Letters 14, 4313–4318.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trindade, H., Costa, M. M., Lima, S. B., Pedro, L. G., Figueiredo, A. C., Barroso, J. G. (2008) Genetic diversity and chemical polymorphism of Thymus caespititius from Pico, São Jorge and Terceira islands (Azores). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 36, 790–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Trindade, H., Costa, M. M., Lima, S. B, Pedro, L. G., Figueiredo, A. C, Barroso, J. G. (2009) A combined approach using RAPD, ISSR and volatile analysis for the characterization of Thymus caespititius from Flores, Corvo and Graciosa islands (Azores, Portugal). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 37, 670–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    van den Dool, H., Kratz, P. (1963) A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partion chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A. 11, 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vieira, R. F., Grayer, R. J., Paton, A., Simon, J. E. (2001) Genetic diversity of Ocimum gratissimum L. based on volatile oil constituents, flavonoids and RAPD markers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 29, 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weglarz, Z., Osinska, E., Buchwald, W., Geszprych, A., Pióra-Jabrucka, E., Pelc, M. (2009) The diversity of wild-growing medicinal plants in Poland. In Lipman, E. (ed.) Report of a Working Group on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Biodiversity International, Rome, Italy, pp. 170–176.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2012

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zsuzsanna Pluhár
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marianna Kocsis
    • 2
  • Anett Kuczmog
    • 2
  • S. Csete
    • 3
  • Hella Simkó
    • 1
  • Szilvia Sárosi
    • 1
  • P. Molnár
    • 4
  • Györgyi Horváth
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Faculty of Horticultural SciencesCorvinus University of BudapestBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of BiologyUniversity of PécsPécsHungary
  3. 3.Department of Plant Systematics and Geobotany, Institute of BiologyUniversity of PécsPécsHungary
  4. 4.Institute of Pharmacognosy, Medical SchoolUniversity of PécsPécsHungary

Personalised recommendations