Effects of a Porphyrazine Derivative on Some Developmental Characteristics of Drosophila Melanogaster


In this study, the effects of a porphyrazine derivative, [octakis (2-trimethylammoniumethyl thio) porphyrazinatocobalt] octaiodide (CoPzq), were explored on the developmental characteristics, sex ratio and egg fertility of Drosophila melanogaster. CoPzq was preferred in the study due to its probability to be used as a chemotherapeutic agent in medicine. As a result of the application of CoPzq, a phenotypic abnormality was revealed within the individuals of F1 and F2 generation of Drosophila. Although individuals of F2 generation did not directly come into contact with the chemical, the rate of abnormality is high. An increase was observed within both generations in terms of the egg fertility. Besides, a deviation emerged in the sex-ratio in some concentrations.


  1. 1.

    Alentorn, M. B., Xamena, N., Velazquez, A., Creus, A., Marcos, R. (1987) Studies on the toxicity of cypermethrin and fenvalerate in different strains of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. (Insecta, Diptera). Environ. Res. 43, 117–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bahçeci, D. (2000) The effects of malathion on Drosophila melanogaster’s development. M. S. Thesis, Gazi Univ. Grad. Sch. Nat. Appl. Sci. 5, 53–58. (In Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Barnes, A. I., Wigby, S., Bone, J. M., Partridge, L. (2008) Feeding, fecundity and life span in female Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. R. Soc. B. 275, 1675–1683.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bharucha, K. N. (2009) The epicurean fly: using Drosophila melanogaster to study metabolism. Pediatr Res. 65, 132–137.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cribbs, D. L., Pattatucci, A. M., Pultz, M. A., Kaufman, T. C. (1992) Ectopic expression of the Drosophila homeotic gene proboscipedia under Antennapedia P1 control causes dominant thoracic defects. Genetics 132, 699–711.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Goslinski, T., Osmalek, T., Mielcarek, J. (2009) Photochemical and spectral characterization of peripherally modified porphyrazines. Polyhedron 28, 3839–3843.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hepburn, D. D. D., Xiao, J., Bindom, S., Vincent, J. B., O’Donnell, J. (2003) Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate causes sterility and lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 3766–3771.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hoellinger, H., Lecorsier, A., Sonnier, M., Leger, C., Thang, D. C., Nam, N. H. (1987) Cytotoxicity, cytogenotoxicity and allergenicity tests on certain pyrethroids. Drug. Chem. Toxicol. 10, 291–310.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Karataş, A., Bahçeci, Z. (2009) Effect of cypermethrin on some developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 82, 738–742.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Karataş, A., Bahçeci, Z. (2009) The effect of cypermethrin on adult individuals’ morphology and sex ratio on Drosophila melanogaster. Dumlupınar Univ. Grad. Sch. Nat. Appl. Sci. J. 19, 1–14. (In Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Karataş, A., Bahçeci, Z. (2009) Toxic effects of Diazinon on adult individuals of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Appl. Biological Sciences 3, 102–108.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Karataş, A., Bahçeci, Z. (2010) The effects of sodium arsenic and chromium(III) chloride on sex ratio and some developmental characteristics on Drosophila melanogaster. Erciyes Univ. Grad. Sch. Nat. Appl. Sci. J. 26, 102–111. (In Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Karataş A., Bahçeci, Z. (2010) The effects of sodium arsenic and chromium(III) chloride on adult individuals’ morphology on Drosophila melanogaster. Cumhuriyet Univ. Grad. Sch. Nat. Appl. Sci. J. 31, 1–21. (In Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kavran, G., Akkus, H., Gul, A., Erim, F. B. (2002) Separation of positional isomers of aromatic anions by capillary electrophoresis using quaternized porphyrazine ion in aqueous solution. J. Sep. Sci. 25, 1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kaya, B., Yanıkoğlu, A. (1999) The effects of 2,4-D and 4-CPA on living, development and adult individual ratio on F1, F2 and F3 generations of Drosophila melanogaster. Tr. J. Zool. 23, 297–301. (In Turkish)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kryger, U., Deschodt, C., Davis, A. L., Scholtz, C. H. (2006) Effects of cattle treatment with a cypermethrin/cymiazol spray on survival and reproduction of the dung beetle species Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 96, 597–603.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lindsley, D. L., Zimm, G. G. (1992) The genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Academic Press, San Diego.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Liu, J., Qu, W., Kadiiska, M. B. (2009) Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 238, 209–214.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Manjunata, T., Hari Dass, S., Sharma, V. K. (2008) Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Genet. 87, 495–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Mirabolghasemi, G., Mahnaz, A. (2002) Developmental changes in Drosophila melanogaster following exposure to alternating electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 23, 416–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Mukhopadhyay, I., Saxena, D. K., Chowdhuri, D. K. (2003) Hazardous effects of effluent from the chrome plating industry: 70 kda heat shock protein expression as a marker of cellular damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ). Environ. Health Perspectives 111, 1926–1932.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Nazir, A., Mukhopadhyay, I., Saxena, D. K., Chowdhuri, D. (2001) Chlorpyrifos-induced hsp 70 expression and effect on reproductive performance in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70- lacZ) bg9. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 41, 443–449.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Neuzil, E., Ballenger, J. (1952) Etude biologiaue de derives hydrosolubles des phthalocyanines. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 146, 1108–1112.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Özkan, F. (1995) The effect of orally taked organophosphate insect malathion on Pimpla turionellae female individuals’ life span and egg fertility. M. S. Thesis, Çukurova Univ. Grad. Sch. Nat. Appl. Sci. 62–78. (In Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Partridge, L., Green, A., Fowler, K. (1987) Effects of egg-production and exposure to males on females survival in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Insect. Physiol. 33, 745–749.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Polat, M., Gul, A. (2000) Synthesis of new porphyrazines with tertiary or quaternized aminoethyl substituents. Dyes Pigm. 45, 195–199.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Reiter, L. T., Bier, E. (2002) Using Drosophila melanogaster to uncover human disease gene function and potential drug target proteins. Expert. Opin. Ther. Targets. 6, 387–399.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Salman, A. B., Marx, B. B., Harsman, L. G. (2001) A cost of reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster: stress susceptibility. Evolution 55, 1600–1608.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sandor, S., Prelipceanu, O., Checiu, I. (1985) Sulphonated phthalocyanine induced caudal malformative syndrome in the chick embryo. Teratology 32, 33–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Shen, L. (2008) Theoretical investigation on the triplet excited state properties of the porphyrinrelated photosensitizers and the implications in illustrating their photosensitization mechanisms. J. Mol. Struct. 862, 130–132.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Sholto, A., Lee, S., Hoffman, M. B., Barrett, A. G. M., Ehrenberg, B. (2008) Spectroscopy, binding to liposomes and production of singlet oxygen by porphyrazines with modularly variable water solubility. Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 764–773.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Stallings, D. M., Hepburn, D. D. D., Hannah, M., Vincent, J. B., O’Donnel, J. (2006) Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate generates chromosomal aberrations and impedes progeny development in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat. Res. 610, 101–113.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Uysal, H., Kaya, Y. (2004) Toxicity of Euphorbia canariensis latex to some developmental stages of D. melanogaster (Drosophilidae). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 72, 45–53.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Vesper, B., Lee, S., Hammer, N. D., Elseth, K. M., Barrett, A. G. M., Hoffman, B. M., Radosevich, J. A. (2006) Developing a structure-function relationship for anionic porphyrazines exhibiting selective anti-tumor activity. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 82, 180–186.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Watson, J. D., Hopkins, N. H., Roberts, J. W., Steitz, J. A., Weiner, A. M. (1987) Mol. Biol. Gene 27, 110–114.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Wayne, M. L., Soundararajan, U., Harshman, L. G. (2006) Environmental stress and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster: starvation resistance, ovariole numbers and early age egg production. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6, 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Weintraub, H., Abrovomici, A., Altman, A., Ben-Hur, E., Rosenthal, I. (1988) Laser Life Sci. 2, 185–190.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Wrenn, F. R., Good, M. L., Handler, P. (1951) Science 113, 525–530.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ayla Karatas.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Karatas, A., Ertan, F., Saki, N. et al. Effects of a Porphyrazine Derivative on Some Developmental Characteristics of Drosophila Melanogaster. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 62, 426–440 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.62.2011.4.8

Download citation


  • Porphyrazine
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • toxic effect
  • sex ratio
  • egg fertility