Cylindrospermopsin and microcystin-LR alter the growth, development and peroxidase enzyme activity of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, a comparative analysis


This work focuses on the comparative analysis of the effects of two cyanobacterial toxins of different chemical structure cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings. Both cyanotoxins reduced significantly the fresh mass and the length of cotyledons, hypocotyls and main roots of seedlings in a concentration dependent manner. For various mustard organs the 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of growth were between 3–5 μg ml−1 for MC-LR and between 5–10 μg ml−1 for CYN, respectively. Cyanotoxins altered the development of cotyledons, the accumulation of photosynthetically active pigments and anthocyanins. Low MC-LR concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μg ml−1) stimulated anthocyanin formation in the cotyledons but higher than 1 μg ml−1 MC-LR concentrations strongly inhibited it. The CYN treated chlorotic cotyledons were violet coloured in consequence of high level of anthocyanins, while MC-LR induced chlorosis was accompanied by the appearance of necrotic patches. Necrosis and increases of peroxidase enzyme activity (POD) are general stress responses but these alterations were characteristic only for MC-LR treated mustard plants. These findings provide experimental evidences of developmental alterations induced by protein synthesis and protein phosphatase inhibitory cyanotoxins (CYN and MC-LR) in a model dicotyledonous plant.



Blue-Green Sinapis Test




fifty percent inhibitory concentration






peroxidase enzyme


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M.-Hamvas, M., Máthé, C., Vasas, G. et al. Cylindrospermopsin and microcystin-LR alter the growth, development and peroxidase enzyme activity of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, a comparative analysis. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 61, 35–48 (2010).

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  • Cylindrospermopsin
  • Microcystin-LR
  • Sinapis alba L.
  • anthocyanin
  • POD