Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 61, Supplement 1, pp 35–48 | Cite as

Cylindrospermopsin and microcystin-LR alter the growth, development and peroxidase enzyme activity of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, a comparative analysis

  • Márta M.-Hamvas
  • C. Máthé
  • G. Vasas
  • Katalin Jámbrik
  • Mária Papp
  • D. Beyer
  • Ilona Mészáros
  • G. BorbélyEmail author


This work focuses on the comparative analysis of the effects of two cyanobacterial toxins of different chemical structure cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings. Both cyanotoxins reduced significantly the fresh mass and the length of cotyledons, hypocotyls and main roots of seedlings in a concentration dependent manner. For various mustard organs the 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of growth were between 3–5 μg ml−1 for MC-LR and between 5–10 μg ml−1 for CYN, respectively. Cyanotoxins altered the development of cotyledons, the accumulation of photosynthetically active pigments and anthocyanins. Low MC-LR concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μg ml−1) stimulated anthocyanin formation in the cotyledons but higher than 1 μg ml−1 MC-LR concentrations strongly inhibited it. The CYN treated chlorotic cotyledons were violet coloured in consequence of high level of anthocyanins, while MC-LR induced chlorosis was accompanied by the appearance of necrotic patches. Necrosis and increases of peroxidase enzyme activity (POD) are general stress responses but these alterations were characteristic only for MC-LR treated mustard plants. These findings provide experimental evidences of developmental alterations induced by protein synthesis and protein phosphatase inhibitory cyanotoxins (CYN and MC-LR) in a model dicotyledonous plant.


Cylindrospermopsin Microcystin-LR Sinapis alba L. anthocyanin POD 



Blue-Green Sinapis Test




fifty percent inhibitory concentration






peroxidase enzyme


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Márta M.-Hamvas
    • 1
  • C. Máthé
    • 1
  • G. Vasas
    • 1
  • Katalin Jámbrik
    • 1
  • Mária Papp
    • 1
  • D. Beyer
    • 1
  • Ilona Mészáros
    • 1
  • G. Borbély
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of DebrecenDebrecenHungary

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