Ultrastructure of Endothelium in Ovules of Penstemon Gentianoides Poir. (Scrophulariaceae) at Mature Embryo Sac Phase


In this study ultrastructural differences between endothelial cells of different location in Penstemon gentianoides have been examined with electron microscope at mature embryo sac phase. Embryo sac is of the Polygonum type and surrounded by endothelium except the micropylar region. The cuticle is located primarily around the chalazal three-fourths of the embryo sac. Endothelium cells around the chalaza and toward the micropylar region are rich in cytoplasmic organelles. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells near the central cell has large vacuoles and few organelles. There are also plasmodesmas on the anticlinal walls of endothelial cells. The endothelium and the micropylar integumentary cells play a role in transport of metabolites into the embryo sac.


  1. 1.

    Arekal, G. D. (1963) Embryological studies in Canadian representatives of the tribe Rhinantheae, Scrophulariaceae. Can. J. Botany 41, 267–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bakar, N., Algan, G. (1997) Electron microscopic examination of the development of the endothelium in Trifolium pratense L. during embryogenesis. Turkish J. Botany 21, 137–144.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Berger, C., Olga, E. (1973) Ultrastructural aspects of the embryo sac of Jasione montana L. cell walls. Caryologia 25, 109–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bouman, F. (1984) The ovule. In: Johri, B. M. (ed.) Embryology of Angiosperms. Berlin, SpringerVerlag, pp. 123–157.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chamberlin, M. A., Horner, H. T., Palmer, R. G. (1993) Nutrition of ovule embryo sac and young embryo in soybean: an anatomical and autoradiographic study. Can. J. Botany 71, 1153–1168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Dane, F., Olgun, G. (1998) Paeonia tenuifolia L. (Paeoniaceae)’da tohum tasla&ğ°n°n yap° ve fonksiy-onunun °ş°k ve elektron mikroskopu ile incelenmesi. Marmara Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 14, 11–38.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Erdelska, O. (1975) Pre-fertilization development of ovule of Jasione montana. Phytomorphology 25, 76–80.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Engell, K., Petersen, G. B. (1977) Integumentary and endothelial cells of Bellis perennis. Morphology and histochemistry in relation to the developing embryo sac. Botanisk Tidskrift 71, 237–244.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Folsom, M. W., Cass, D. D. (1986) Change in the transfer cells distribution in the ovule of soybean after fertilization. Can. J. Botany 64, 965–972.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Godineau, J. C. (1971) Ultrastructure of the embryo sac of Crepis tectorum L. after cell formation and fusion of polar nuclei. Ann. Univ. l’Assoc. Régionale Étude Rech. Sci. pp. 78-88.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Johansson, M., Walles, B. (1994) Functional anatomy of the ovule in broad-bean (Vicia faba L.): ultrastructural seed development and nutrient pathways. Ann. Botany 74, 233–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kapil, R. N., Masand, P. (1964) Embryology of Hebenstreitia integrifolia Linn. Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India, 32B, 218-232.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kapil, R. N., Tiwari, S. C. (1978) The integumentary tapetum. Botanical Rev. 44, 457–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Marinos, N. G. (1970) Embryogenesis of the pea (Pisum sativum). The cytological environment of the developing embryo. Protoplasma 70, 261–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mogensen, H. L. (1973) Some histochemical, ultrastructural, and nutritional aspects of the ovule of Quercus gambelii. Am. J. Botany 60, 48–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Mogensen, H. L. (1978) Synergids of Proboscidea louisianica (Martineaceae) before fertilization. Phytomorphology 28, 114–122.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mogensen, H. L. (1981) Ultrastructural localization of adenosine triphosphatase in the ovules of Saintpaulia ionantha (Gesneriaceae) and its relation to synergid function and embryo sac nutrition. Am. J. Botany 68, 183–194.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Newcomb, W., Steeves, T. A. (1973) The development of the embryo sac of sunflower Helianthus annuus before fertilizations. Can. J. Botany 51, 863–878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Olgun, G. (1979) Investigation on the comparative karyology and embryology (embryo sac and endosperm development) of Digitalis viridiflora Lindl. and Digitalis lutea L. İstanbul Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Mecmuas°. Seri B 44, 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Olgun, G., Jensen, J. A. (1987) The ultrastructure of the egg apparatus and central cell of Penstemon gentianoides Poir. before fertilization (Scrophulariaceae). İstanbul Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Mecmuas° Seri B 52, 35–45.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Plisko, M. A. (1971) An electron microscopic investigation of the characteristic features of megaga-metogenesis in Calendula officinalis L. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 56, 582-597. (In Russian.)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Raju, D. (1973) Embryological studies in the tribe Selagineae agathelpis Dubia. Phytomorphology 23, 194–205.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Raju, D., Arekal, G. D. (1978) Endosperm and embryo in Linaria ramosissima. Phytomorphology 28, 88–95.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rau, M. A. (1951) The mechanism of nutrition in Vigna catjang. New Phytologist 50, 121–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Reynolds, E. S. (1963) The use of lead citrate of high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17, 208–212.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Roti-Michelozzi, G., Riggio-Bevilacqua, L., Boca, P. (1989) Development of the tissues surrounding the embryo in Melilotus alba Med. Phytomorphology 39, 157–160.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Sangduen, N., Kreitner, G. L., Sorensen, E. L. (1983) Light and electron microscopy of embryo development in perennial and annual Medicago species. Can. J. Botany 61, 837–849.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Seghal, C. B., Gifford, E. M. (1979) Developmental and histochemical studies of the ovules Nicotiana rustica L. Botanical Gazette 140, 180–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Spurr, A. R. (1969) A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26, 31–43.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Swamy, B. G., Krishnamurty, K. V. (1970) On the so-called endothelium in the monocotyledons. Phytomorphology 20, 262–269.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Taneja, S. (1970) Embryology, seed and fruit structure of Hebenstreitia comosa. Hochest, with systematic position of the family Selagineacae. J. Ind. Botanical Soc. 48, 300–310.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Van Der Pluijm, J. E. (1964) An electron microscope investigation of the filiform apparatus in the embryo sac of Torenia fournieri J. In: Linskens, H. F. (ed.) Pollen Physiology and Fertilization. North Holland Pub. Co. Amsterdam, pp. 8-16.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Vazart, B., Vazart, J. (1965) Infrastructure de l’ovule du lin, Linum usitatissimum L. I. L’assise jaquette ou endothelium. Acad. Sci. Paris Compt. Rend. 261, 2927–2930.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Yeung, E. C. (1983) Developmental changes in the branched parenchyma cells of bean-sead coat. Protoplasma 118, 225–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nuran Ekici.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dane, F., Olgun, G. & Ekici, N. Ultrastructure of Endothelium in Ovules of Penstemon Gentianoides Poir. (Scrophulariaceae) at Mature Embryo Sac Phase. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 58, 225–233 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.58.2007.2.9

Download citation


  • Penstemon gentianoides
  • megagametophyte
  • endothelium
  • ultrastructure