Cryopreservation of Sperm of Two European Percid Species, the Pikeperch (Sander Lucioperca) and the Volga Pikeperch (S. Volgensis)


Experiments were carried out on sperm cryopreservation of two European percid fish species, the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and the Volga pikeperch (S. volgensis). Two experiments were conducted on pikeperch sperm. In the first, the effects of three extenders (Glucose, KCl, Sucrose) and two cry-oprotectants (dimethyl-sulfoxide: DMSO, methanol: MeOH) were tested on motility and fertilization. In the second, the effects of two dilution ratios (1 : 1, 1 : 9) and two cryoprotectants (DMSO, MeOH) on hatching were investigated. In the experiment on Volga pikeperch the suitability of using cryopreservation for fertilization was investigated. In the first experiment on pikeperch the highest post-thaw motility (28 ± 21%) and fertilization rate (43 ± 12%) was found with DMSO as cryoprotectant in combination with Glucose extender. In the second, the highest hatch rate (41 ± 22%) was observed with MeOH as cryoprotectant and 1: 1 sperm dilution ratio, however no significant difference was found among the results. In the experiment on Volga pikeperch hatch rates with cryopreserved sperm (60 ± 2%) did not significantly differ from the control (60 ± 6%). Contamination of sperm with urine seems to be a key problem in the success of sperm cryopreservation of these species.


  1. 1.

    Ciereszko, A., Ramseyer, L., Dabrowski, K. (1993) Cryopreservation of yellow perch Semen. Prog. Fish. Cult. 55, 261–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cognie, F., Billard, R., Chao, N. H. (1989) La cryoconservation de la laitance de la carpe, Cyprinus carpio. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 5, 165–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Glogowski, J., Babiak, I., Kucharczyk, D., Luczynski, M., Piros, B. (1999) Some properties of bream Abramis brama L. sperm and its cryopreservation. Aquac. Res. 30, 765–772.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Glogowski, J., Kwasnik, M., Piros, B., Dabrowski, K., Goryczko, K., Dobosz, S., Kuzminski, H., Ciereszko, A. (2000) Characterization of rainbow trout milt collected with a catheter: semen parameters and cryopreservation success. Aquac. Res. 31, 289–296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Glogowski, J., Kolman, R., Szczepkowski, M., Horváth, Á., Urbányi, B., Sieczyñski, P, Rzemieniecki, A., Domagała, J., Demianowicz, W., Kowalski, R., Ciereszko, A. (2002) Fertilization rate of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri, Brandt) milt cryopreserved with methanol. Aquaculture 211, 367–373.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Harvey, B. (1983) Cryopreservation of Sarotherodon mossambicus spermatozoa. Aquaculture 32, 313–320.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Honeyfield, D. C, Krise, W. F. (2000) Measurement of milt quality and factors affecting viability of fish spermatozoa. In: Tiersch, T. R., Mazik, P. M. (eds) Cryopreservation in Aquatic Species. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, pp. 49–58.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Horváth, Á., Urbányi, B. (2001) Cryopreservation of sperm of some European cyprinids and percids, World Aquac. Mag. 32, 23–25.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Horváth, Á., Miskolczi, E., Urbányi, B. (2003) Cryopreservation of common carp sperm. Aquat. Living Resour 16, 457–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Horváth, Á., Wayman, W. R., Urbányi, B., Ware, K. M., Dean, J. C, Tiersch, T. R. (2005) The relationship of cryoprotectants methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide and hyperosmotic extenders on sperm cryopreservation of two North-American sturgeon species. Aquaculture 247, 243–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Horváth, L., Tamás, G., Seagrave, C. (2002) Carp and Pond Fish Culture. Fishing News Books, Oxford.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Horváth, L., Csorbai, B., Szabó, K., Tamás, G. (2005) New experiences in induced pikeperch spawning. In: Pekár, F. (ed.) Fisheries and Aquaculture Development 30. Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation, pp. 41-53 (in Hungarian).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Keresztesy, K., Horváth, L., Urbányi, B., Horváth, Á., Baska, F., Pethő, Á., Masek, P. (2003) Conservation possibilities of endangered fish species from the river Tisza. Hidrológiai Közlöny 83, 73–75 (in Hungarian).

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kurokura, H., Hirano, R., Tomita, M., Iwahashi, M. (1984) Cryopreservation of carp sperm. Aquaculture 37, 267–273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Lahnsteiner, F., Weismann, T., Patzner, R. A. (1997) Methanol as cryoprotectant and the suitability of 1.2 ml and 5 ml straws for cryopreservation of semen from salmonid fishes. Aquac. Res. 28, 471–479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Lahnsteiner, F., Berger, B., Horváth, Á., Urbányi, B., Weismann, T. (2000) Cryopreservation of spermatozoa in cyprinid fishes. Theriogenology 54, 1477–1498.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Linhart, O., Rodina, M., Cosson, J. (2000) Cryopreservation of sperm in common carp Cyprinus carpio: sperm motility and hatching success of embryos. Cryobiology 41, 241–250.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Moczarski, M. (1977) Deep freezing of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sperm. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Biol. 24, 187–190.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Moore, A. A. (1987) Short-term storage and cryopreservation of walleye semen. Prog. Fish. Cult. 49, 40–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Müller, T., Taller, J., Nyitrai, G., Kucska, B., Cernák, I., Bercsényi, M., (2004) Hybrid of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca L. and Volga perch, S. volgense (Gmelin). Aquac. Res. 35, 915–916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Müller, T., Nyitrai, G., Kucska, B., Bódis, M., Bercsényi, M. (2005). Artificial propagation of Volga pikeperch. In: Pekár, F. (ed.) Fisheries and Aquaculture Development 30. Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation. pp. 55–60 (in Hungarian with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Müller, T., Bódis, M., Nyitrai, G. (2006) Observations on the artificial propagation of pikeperch. Halászat 99, 20–22. (in Hungarian)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Perchec, G., Cosson, J., André, F., Billard, R. (1995) Degradation of the quality of carp sperm by urine contamination during stripping. Aquaculture 129, 135–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Specziár, A., Bíró, P. (2003) Population structure and feeding characteristics of Volga pikeperch, Sander volgensis (Pisces, Percidae), in Lake Balaton. Hydrobiologia 506–509, 503-510.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Steffens, W., Geldhauser, F., Gerstner, P., Hilge, V. (1996). German experiences in the propagation and rearing of fingerling pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca). Ann. Zool. Fennici 33, 627–634.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Steyn, G. J. (1993) The effect of freezing rate on the survival of cryopreserved African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) spermatozoa. Cryobiology 30, 581–590.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Steyn, G. J., Van Vuren, J. H. J. (1987) The fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sperm. Aquaculture 63, 187–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Tiersch, T. R., Goudie, C. A., Carmichael, G. J. (1994) Cryopreservation of channel catfish sperm: storage in cryoprotectants, fertilization trials and growth of channel catfish produced with cryopre-served sperm. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 123, 580–586.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Zakes, Z., Szczepkowski, M. (2004) Induction of out-season spawning of pikeperch, Sander luciop-erca (L.). Aquac. Int. 12, 11–18.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the OTKA T 048289, NKFP 4/006/2004, PÁL OM-28345/2003 and RET 12/05 projects as well as the Bolyai János Fellowship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Á. Horváth.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bokor, Z., Müller, T., Bercsényi, M. et al. Cryopreservation of Sperm of Two European Percid Species, the Pikeperch (Sander Lucioperca) and the Volga Pikeperch (S. Volgensis). BIOLOGIA FUTURA 58, 199–207 (2007).

Download citation


  • Pikeperch
  • Volga pikeperch
  • sperm
  • cryopreservation
  • urine