Advertisement

Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 55, Issue 1–4, pp 71–79 | Cite as

Action Spectrum of Foraging Behavior of the Japanese Yellow Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio Xuthus

  • H. Koshitaka
  • M. Kinoshita
  • K. ArikawaEmail author
Article

Abstract

This paper describes the action spectrum of foraging behavior of a butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We first established an experimental protocol to evaluate learning and discrimination of monochromatic light by the butterflies. We trained butterflies to feed on sucrose solution at the window illuminated with certain monochromatic light produced through a monochromator. After confirming that they learned the monochromatic light, after 10 days of training, we tested the butterflies one by one. We presented training wavelengths for each individual at different intensities, and recorded whether they perform foraging behavior under freely-flying as well as tethered conditions. Freely-flying butterflies responded to light by visiting the window and searching for nectar around it, whereas tethered butterflies responded by extending their proboscides towards the window. The light intensity required to elicit 50% response for each tested monochromatic light was plotted. The resulting action spectrum for the visit was rather flat with the maximum sensitivity a 420 nm, whereas the spectrum for the proboscis extension had prominent peaks at 380, 500 and 600 nm. The difference in action spectra indicates that the visit and the proboscis extension are controlled by two independent mechanisms at least in part.

Keywords

Compound eye color vision monochromatic light nectar guide spectral sensitivity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kinoshita, M., Shimada, N., Arikawa, K. (1999) Colour vision of the foraging swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. J. Exp. Biol. 202, 95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kinoshita, M., Arikawa, K. (2000) Colour constancy of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. J. Exp. Biol. 203, 3521–3530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arikawa, K., Inokuma, K., Eguchi, E. (1987) Pentachromatic visual system in a butterfly. Naturwissenschaften 74, 297–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Land, M. F., Nilsson, D.-E. (2002) Animal eyes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weiss, M. R. (1991) Floral colour changes as cues for pollinators. Nature 354, 227–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scherer, C., Kolb, G. (1987) The influence of color stimuli on visually controlled behavior in Aglais urticae L. and Pararge aegeria L. (Lepidoptera). J. Comp. Physiol. A161, 891–898.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kolb, G., Scherer, C. (1982) Experiments on wavelength specific behavior of Pieris brassicae L. during drumming and egg-laying. J. Comp. Physiol. A149, 325–332.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2004

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Integrated ScienceYokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations