Advertisement

Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 121–136 | Cite as

Morphological Characteristics of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wołoszyńska) Seenayya et Subba Raju in Laboratory Cultures

  • H. M. ShafikEmail author
Article

Abstract

The freshwater cyanoprokaryote Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has become increasingly prevalent in tropical and temperate water bodies worldwide. The morphological characteristics of this species were investigated under different growth rates in continuous cultures (at steady state) and in batch (phosphorus starved) cultures with different mineral nitrogen forms. The species displays an enormous morphological variability under controlled condition. The occurrence of extreme long twisted filaments was found near the maximum growth rate and under high ammonium concentration. Rarely the heterocytes of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii arise intercalarly between two neighbouring cells (i.e. intercalary heterocytes were found). The morphological features are highly effected by environmental conditions and nutrient availability. Under P-starvation extreme morphology appeared. The specifications of C. africana and C. cuspis overlap with that of C. raciborskii accordingly this is not clear characteristic feature to distinguish species. A pure culture of a pro- or eukaryote alga growing in continuous cultures is a good method for giving a suitable overview on all morphological possibilities of a tested organism.

Keywords

Batch and continuos cultures Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii morphology P-starvation nitrogen forms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Dr. Sándor Herodek, Dr. Lajos Vörös, Dr. Mátyás Présing and Mr. Péter Sprőber for continuous help and useful discussion throughout this work. Thanks go to Ms. Edit Szőke for revision the English language of the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Baker, P. D. (1991) Identification of common noxious cyanobacteria. Part 1 Nostocales. Melbourne, Urban Water Res. Assoc. Australia. Res. Rep. 29, 132–138.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, P. D. (1996) Occurrence of Cylindrospermopsis in south-Eastern Australia. In Cylindrospermopsis A new toxic algal bloom challenge for Australia National Water Week October 24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chapman, A. D., Schelske, C. L. (1997) Recent appearance of Cylindrospermopsis (Cyanobacteria) in five hypereutrophic Florida lakes. J. Phycol. 33, 191–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harold, F. M. (1990) To shape a cell an inquiry into the causes of morphogenesis of microorganisms. Microbiol. Rev. 53, 82–431.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hindák, F. (1988) Planktic species of two related genera Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaenopsis from Western Slovakia. Arch. Hydrobiol./Suppl.80, Algological Studied 50, 283–303.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hindák, F. (2000) A contribution to the taxonomy of the nostocalean genus Richelia (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria). Biologia, Bratislava 55, 1–6.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Horecká, M., Komárek, J. (1979) Taxonomic position of three planktonic blue-green algae from the genera Aphanizomenon and Cylindrospermopsis. Preslia, Praha 51, 289–312.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Istvánovics, V., Herodek, S. (1995) Estimation of net uptake and leakage rates of orthophosphate from 32P-uptake by linear force-flow model. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Istvánovics, V., Shafik, H. M., Présing, M., Juhos, S. (2000) Growth and phosphate uptake kinetics of the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanophyceae) in throughflow cultures. Freshwater Biology 43, 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jeeji Bai, N., Hegewald, E., Soeder, C. J. (1979) Revision and taxonomic analysis of the genus Anabaenopsis Algol. Stud. 18, 3–24.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Komárek, J., Angnostidis, K. (1989) Modern approach top the classification system of Cyanophytes 4-Nostocales Algol. Stud. 56, 247–345.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Komárkek, J., Kling, H. (1991) Variation in six planktonic cyanophyte genera in Lake Victoria (East Africa). Algol. Stud. 61, 21–45.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Komárková-Legnerová, J., Tavera, R. (1996) Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanobacteria) in the phytoplankton of Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Algol. Stud. 83, 403–422.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Komárková, J. (1998) Fish stock as a variable modifying trophic pattern of phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia, 369-370, 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Komárková, J., Laudares-Silva, R., Senna, P. A. C. (1999) Extreme morphology of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) in the Lagoa do Peri, a freshwater coastal lagoon, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Arch. Hydrobiol. Algol. Stud. 94, 207–222.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Layzell, D. B., Turpin, D. H., Elrifi, I. R. (1985) Effect of N source on the steady-state growth and N assimilation of P-limited Anabaena flos-aquae. Plant Physiol. 78, 739–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, D.-Y., Rhee, G.-Y. (1997) Kinetics of cell death in the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae and the production of dissolved organic carbon. J. Phycol. 33, 991–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, R., Watanabe, M., Watanabe, M. M. (2000) Taxonomic studies of planktic species of Anabaena based on morphological characteristics in cultured strains. Hydrobiologia 438, 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meeks, J. C., Wycoff, K. L., Chapman, J. S., Enderlin, C. S. (1983) Regulation of expression of nitrate and dinitrogen assimilation by Anabaena species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45, 1351–1359.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Padisák, J. (1997) Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya et Subba Raju, an expanding, highly adaptive cyanobacterium Worldwide distribution and review of its ecology Arch. Hydrobiol./Suppl., Monogr. Stud. 107, 563–593.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reynolds, C. S. (1991) The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. Cambridge University. pp. 384.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saker, M. L., Neilan, B. A., Griffiths, D. J. (1999) Two morphological forms of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) isolated from Solomon Dam, Palm Island, Queensland J. Phycol. 35 599–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saker, M. L., Neilan, B. A. (2001) Varied diazotrophies, morphologies, and toxicities of genetically similar isolates of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanophyceae) from northern Australia Appl. Enviroment. Microbiol. 67, 1839–1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seenayya, G., Subba Raju, N. (1972) On the ecology and systematic of the alga known as Anabaenopsis raciborskii (Wolosz.) Elenk. and a critical evaluation of the forms described under the genus Anabaenopsis. In: Desikachary, T. V. (ed.) Papers submitted to the First Internat. Symposium on Taxonomy and Biology of blue-green algae. Madras Univ., pp. 52–57.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shafik, H. M. (2000) Phenotypic plasticity, colonial formation and growth characters of Desmodesmus spinosus and Scenedesmus obliquus. Egypt. J. Phycol. 1, 181–193.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shafik, H. M., Herodek, S., Présing, M., Vörös, L. (2001) Factors effecting growth and cell composition of cynoprokaryote Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya et Subba Raju. Algol. Stud 103, 75–94.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh, R. N. (1962) Seasonal variants of Anabenopsis raciborskii Wolosz. Hydrobiologia 20, 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vörös, L. (1995) Studies on the factors affecting the growth and toxicity of cyanobacteria. Research Report. Balaton Limnological Research Institute Hungarian Academy of Science, Tihany, Hungary, pp. 1-204. (in Hungarian).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Watanabe, M. (1995) Studies on planktonic blue-green algae 5 A new species of Cylindrospermopsis (Nostocaceae) from Japan. Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo, ser. B. 12, 45–48.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wilson, K. M., Schembri, M. A., Baker, P. D., Saint, Ch. P. (2000) Molecular characterization of the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and design of a species-specific PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Woloszyńska, J. (1912) O glonach planktonowych niektórych jezior jawanskich z uwzglednieniem glonów Sawy. Das Phytoplankton einiger jawanischer Seen mit Berucksichtigung des SawaPlanktons. Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Cl. Sci. math. Nat., Ser. B, 6B 649–709.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2003

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Balaton Limnological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesTihanyHungary
  2. 2.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

Personalised recommendations