Assemblages of carabid beetles (Col. Carabidae) and ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae) in natural and artificial regeneration of pine forests
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Carabid beetles and spiders are at the top of the hierarchy of general invertebrate predators, which can help to reduce the abundance of harmful forest pests. They are also frequently used as environmental indicators. In this paper we analyzed the abundance, species richness and changes in carabid beetle and spider assemblages in three treatments of pine forest regeneration — natural, natural with soil prepared by ploughing and artificial with seedlings planted in ploughed soil. The most beneficial forest regeneration treatment variant of forest regeneration for carabid beetles and spiders was the natural regeneration of pine stands without any preceding soil preparation. Both taxa responded strongly to soil ploughing. We also noted the replacement of forest species by less sensitive open area species. In carabid assemblages, large changes in the trophic structure were observed, as predatory species were replaced by hemizoophages in the ploughed treatments.
KeywordsGround beetles Ground-living spiders Pine forest regeneration
General Linear Mixed effect Model
Natural with Ploughed soil
Non-metric MultiDimensional Scaling
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We are grateful to Dr S. Venn for valuable comments and improving the English. This work was supported by the grant: “Natural forest regeneration as a mean of decrease of deer browsing in Warmia and Mazury” funding from General Directorate of State Forests. We would like to thank Prof. J. Borkowski for allowing us to conduct research within the framework of the grant.
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