Recurrent patterns of phylogenetic habitat fltering in woody plant communities across phytogeographically distinct grassland-forest ecotones

Abstract

The phylogenetic relationship among species may influence the mechanisms controlling local community assembly in ecological time. We analyzed the degree of recurrence of phylogenetic structure patterns in woody plant communities distributed along grassland-forest ecotones, across different vegetation types in southern Brazil, and the effect of phylogenetic pool size used to assess such patterns. Species frequency in quadrats distributed along grassland-forest ecotones was surveyed in different phytogeographic regions, where forests tend to expand over grasslands. We used principal coordinates of phylogenetic structure (PCPS) to evaluate the structure within vegetation quadrats divided into three habitat categories: grassland, forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, phylogenetic structure measures were computed using different phylogenetic pool sizes. Our analyses showed consistent patterns in relation to habitat categories and to different phylogenetic pool sizes. Basal clades of angiosperms were associated with forest areas, while late-divergence clades were associated with grasslands. These results suggest that grasslands act as phylogenetic habitat filters to forest woody species, independently of species composition at each site and the phylogenetic pool. Rosanae and Asteranae act as vanguards of forest expansion over grasslands, while Magnolianae species tend to be restricted to forest. Our results shed light on the organization of ecological systems, providing evidence of recurrent phylogenetic structure patterns in ecotone plant communities at regional scale.

Abbreviations

PCPS:

Principal Coordinates of Phylogenetic Structure

References

  1. Anderson, M.J. 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral. Ecol 26: 32–46.

    Google Scholar 

  2. APG. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classi-fcation for the orders and families of fowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161: 105–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Behling, H. 2002. South and southeast Brazilian grasslands during Late Quaternary times: a synthesis. Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl. 177: 19–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Behling, H. and Pillar, V.D. 2007. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fre dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B 362: 243–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bell, C.D., Soltis, D.E. and Soltis, P.S. 2010. The age and diversifca-tion of the angiosperms re-revisited. Am. J. Bot. 97: 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bond, W.J. and Midgley, G.F. 2000. A proposed CO2-controlled mechanism of woody plant invasion in grasslands and savannas. Glob. Change Biol. 6: 865–869.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L.V., Higgins, J.P.T. and Rothstein, H.R. 2009. Introduction to Meta-analysis. Wiley. Chichester, UK

    Book  Google Scholar 

  8. Boyce, C.K., Brodribb, T.J., Feild, T.S. and Zwieniecki, M.A. 2009. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. 276: 1771–1776.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Brodribb, T.J. and Feild, T.S. 2010. Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversifcation. Ecol. Lett. 13: 175–183.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Burns, J.H. and Strauss, S.Y. 2011. More closely related species are more ecologically similar in an experimental test. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 5302–5307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cavender-Bares, J., Kozak, K.H., Fine, P.V.A. and Kembel, S.W. 2009. The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology. Ecol. Lett. 12: 693–715.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Crisp, M.D., Arroyo, M.T.K., Cook, L.G., Gandolfo, M.A., Jordan, G.J., McGlone, M.S., Weston, P.H., Westoby,M., Wilf, P. and Linder, H.P. 2009. Phylogenetic biome conservatism on a global scale. Nature 458: 754–756.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. J. Murray. London, UK.

  14. Diamond, J.H. 1975. Assembly of species communities. In: Cody M.L. and Diamond, J.H. (eds), Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Belknap Press. Cambridge, US. pp. 342–444.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Donoghue, M.J. 2008. A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 11549–11555.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Duarte, L.D.S. 2011. Phylogenetic habitat fltering infuences forest nucleation in grasslands. Oikos 120: 208–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Duarte, L.D.S., Carlucci, M.B., Hartz , S.M. and Pillar, V.D. 2007. Plant dispersal strategies and the colonization of Araucaria forest patches in a grassland-forest mosaic. J. Veg. Sci. 18: 847–858.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Feild, T.S., Arens, N.C., Doyle, J.A., Dawson, T.E. and Donoghue, M.J. 2004. Dark and disturbed: a new image of early angiosperm ecology. Paleobiology 30: 82–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Feild, T.S., Upchurch Jr., G.R., Chatelet, D.S., Brodribb, T.J., Grubbse, K.C., Samain, M. and Wanke, S. 2011. Fossil evidence for low gas exchange capacities for Early Cretaceous angio-sperm leaves. Paleobiology 37: 195–213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Felsenstein, J. 1985. Phylogenies and the comparative method. Am. Nat. 125: 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Gotelli, N.J. and Entsminger, G.L. 2001. Swap and fll algorithms in null model analysis: rethinking the knight’s tour. Oecologia 129: 281–291.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Harper, K.A., Macdonald, S.E., Burton, P.J., Chen, J., Brosofske, K.D., Saunders, S.C., Euskirchen, E.S., Roberts, D., Jaiteh, M.S. and Esseem, P. 2005. Edge infuence on forest structure and composition in fragmented landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 19: 768–782.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hubbell, S. 2001. The Unifed Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Princeton University Press. Princeton, US.

    Google Scholar 

  24. IBGE. 1986. Levantamento dos Recursos Naturais, Projeto Radam Brasil. Volume 33. IBGE. Rio de Janeiro, BR.

  25. Jackson, D.A. 1995. PROTEST: A Procrustean randomization test of community environment concordance. Écoscience 2: 297–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kapos, V. 1989. Effects of isolation on the water status of forest patches in the Brazilian Amazon. J. Trop. Ecol. 5: 173–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Keddy, P. and Weiher, E. 1999. Introduction: The scope and goals of research on assembly rules. In : Weiher, E. and Keddy, P. (Eds.), Ecological Assembly Rules: Perspectives, Advances, Retreats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. pp. 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Kembel, S.W. and Hubbell, S. P. 2006. The phylogenetic structure of a neotropical forest tree community. Ecology 87: 86–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kooyman, R., Rossetto, M., Cornwell, W. and Westoby, M. 2011. Phylogenetic tests of community assembly across regional to continental scales in tropical and subtropical rain forests. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 20: 707–716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Laurance, W.F., Lovejoy, T.E., Vasconcelos, H.L., Bruna, E.M., Didham, R.K., Stouffer, P.C., Gascon, C., Bierregaard, R.O., Laurance, S.G. and Sampaio, E. 2002. Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments: a 22-year investigation. Conserv. Biol. 16: 605–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Laurance, W.F, Nascimento, H.E.M., Laurance, S.G., Andrade, A.C.S., Ribeiro, J.E.L.S., Giraldo, J.P., Lovejoy, T.E., Condit, R.S., Chave, J., Harms, K.E. and D’Angelo, S.A. 2006. Rapid decay of tree-community composition in Amazonian forest fragments. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 19010–19014.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Legendre, P. and Legendre, L. 1998. Numerical Ecology. Elsevier. Amsterdam, NL.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Leite, P.F. 2002. Contribuição ao conhecimento ftoecológico do sul do Brasil. Ciência & Ambiente 24: 51–73.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Letcher, S.G. 2010. Phylogenetic structure of angiosperm communities during tropical forest succession. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. 277: 97–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Matlack, G.R. 1994. Vegetation dynamics of the forest edge trends in space and successional time. J. Ecol. 88: 113–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Müller, S.C., Overbeck, G.E., Pfadenhauer, J. and Pillar, V.D. 2012. Woody species patterns at forest-grassland boundaries in southern Brazil. Flora 207: 586–598.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Oliveira, J. M. and Pillar, V. D. 2004. Vegetation dynamics on mosaics of Campos and Araucaria forest between 1974 and 1999 in Southern Brazil. Community. Ecol. 5: 197–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Parmentier, I. and Hardy, O.J. 2009. The impact of ecological differentiation and dispersal limitation on species turnover and phy-logenetic structure of inselberg’s plant communities. Ecography 32: 613–622.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Pillar, V.D. and Duarte, L.S. 2010. A framework for metacommunity analysis of phylogenetic structure. Ecol. Lett. 13: 587–596.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Rambo, B. 1956. A fsionomia do Rio Grande do Sul. 2nd ed. Selbach. Porto Alegre, BR.

  41. Ricklefs, R.E. 1987. Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes. Science. 235: 167–171.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Ries, L. Fletcher, R.J.J., Battin, J. and Sisk, T.D. 2004. Ecological responses to habitat edges: Mechanisms, models, and variability explained. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 35: 491–522.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Santos, B.A., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Moreno, C.E. and Tabarelli, M. 2010. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian atlantic forest. PloS one 5: e12625.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Scholes, R.J. and Archer, S.R. 1997. Tree-grass interactions in savannas. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28: 517–544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J. 1994. Biometry. W.H. Freeman and Co. New York, US.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N. et al. 2011. Angiosperm phy-logeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. Am. J. Bot. 98: 704–730.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Swenson, N.G., Enquist, B.J., Pither, J., Thompson, J. and Zimmerman, J.K. 2006. The problem and promise of scale dependency in community phylogenetics. Ecology 87: 2418–2424.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Valiente-Banuet, A., Rumebe, A.V., Verdú, M. and Callaway, R.M. 2006. Modern Quaternary plant lineages promote diversity through facilitation of ancient Tertiary lineages. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 16812–16817.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Webb, C.O., Ackerly, D.D., McPeek, M.A. and Donoghue, M.J. 2002. Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 475–505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Wiens, J.J. and Graham, C.H. 2005. Niche conservatism: Integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 36: 519–539.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Willis, C.G., Halina, M., Lehman, C., Reich, P.B., Keen, A., McCarthy, S. and Cavender-Bares, J. 2010. Phylogenetic community structure in Minnesota oak savanna is infuenced by spatial extent and environmental variation. Ecography 33: 565–577 .

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. J. Debastiani.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Debastiani, V.J., Muller, S.C., Oliveira, J.M. et al. Recurrent patterns of phylogenetic habitat fltering in woody plant communities across phytogeographically distinct grassland-forest ecotones. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 16, 1–9 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1556/168.2015.16.1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Community assembly
  • Edge effect
  • Phylogenetic structure
  • Forest expansion
  • Phylogenetic pool
  • Phylogenetic diversity

Nomenclature

  • The International Plant Names Index