Effect of different doses of nitrogen (N) (90, 120, 150 and 180 kg Nha–1) on the activities of aminotransferases and alkaline inorganic pyrophosphatase (AIP) in relation to the accumulation of proteins, amino acids and sugars in roots and internodes at 15 and 40 days post anthesis (DPA) stages was studied in six wheat genotypes namely HD 2967, GLU 1101, PBW 343, BW 9022, PH-132–4840 and PBW 550. Supra-optimal N doses (150 kg Nha–1 and 180 kg Nha–1) accentuated glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline inorganic pyrophosphatase activities in correspondence with an increase in amino acid, protein and sugar content in both roots and internodes in all the six genotypes. Activities of analyzed enzymes were significantly high at 15 days post anthesis (DPA) stage and thereafter declined at maturity (40 DPA) in parallel with decrease in amino acid contents. Maximum activity of GOT, GPT and AIP was observed in HD 2967 and GLU 1101 genotypes along with higher build up of proteins and amino acids which resulted in higher grain yield. Activity of GPT was comparatively high over GOT, indicating its major role towards protein synthesis. Grain filling processes in terms of proteins and amino acids were positively correlated with GOT and GPT activities while sugars were correlated to AIP. Thus, nitrogen acquisition and assimilation resulted in favoured utilization of N in form of amino acid and proteins accumulation while sugar content was also stimulated. Due to immense activities of aminotransferases and higher contents of amino acids and proteins in GLU 1101 and HD 2967 genotypes at optimal dose and higher dose of N, these genotypes hold future potential for developing new cultivars with better grain quality characteristics.
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase
glutamate pyruvate transaminase
days post anthesis
Abedi, T., Alemzadeh, A., Kazemeini, S.A. 2011. Wheat yield and grain proteins response to nitrogen amount and timing. Aust. J. Crop Sci. 5:330–336.
Almodares, A., Jafarinia, M., Hadi, M.R. 2009. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer on chemical compositions in corn and sweet sorghum. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 6:441–446.
Almodares, A., Taheri, R., Chung, M., Faithin, M. 2008. The effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on growth parameters and carbohydrate content of sweet sorghum cultivars. J. Environ. Biol. 29:849–852.
Asthir, B., Bhatia, S. 2012. In vivo studies on artificial induction of thermotolerance to detached panicles of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under heat stress. J. Food Sci. Tech. 51:118–213.
Asthir, B., Tak, Y. 2017. Fluoride induced changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in two contrasting cultivars of Triticumaestivum L. Fluoride 50:334–342.
Bala, S., Asthir, B., Bains, N.S. 2010. High temperature response leads to altered membrane permeability in conjuction with carbon utilization in wheat. Seed Sci. Biotech. 4:10–14.
Balla, K., Rakszegi, M., Li, Z., Bekes, S., Bencze, S., Veisz, O. 2011. Quality of winter wheat in relation to heat and drought shock after anthesis. Czech J. Food Sci. 29:117–128.
Bencze, S., Veisz, O., Bedo, Z. 2004. Effects of high atmospheric CO2 and heat stress on phytomass, yield and grain quality of winter wheat. Cereal Res. Commun. 32:75–82.
Bybordi, A., Ebrahimian, E. 2011. Effect of salinity stress on activity of enzymes involved in nitrogen and phosphorous metabolism case study: Canola (Brassica napus L.). Asian J. Agric. Res. 5:208–214.
Dupont, F.M., Altenbach, S.B. 2009. Molecular and biochemical impacts of environmental factors on wheat grain development and proteins synthesis. J. Cereal Sci. 38:133–146.
Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Siddique, K.H.M. 2012. Micronutrients application through seed treatments. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 12:125–142.
Galani, N.N., Lomte, M.H., Choudhari, S.D. 1991. Juice yield and brix as affected by genotype, plant density and N levels in high energy sorghum. Bharatiy Sugar 16:23–24.
Ge, T.D., Paula, R., Jones, D.L., Yang, D., Songs, S.W., Lu, B.B., Huang, D.F. 2008. Influence of inorganic and organic nitrogen on enzymes of nitrogen assimilation and growth in tomato seedlings. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotech. 83:513–519.
Heppel, L.A. 1995. Inorganic pyrophosphate from yeast. Methods Enzymol. 2:570–576.
Kaur, G., Asthir, B., Bains, N.S. 2016a. Genotypic variation for nitrogen uptake and assimilation using hydroponic culture technique in wheat. J. Plant Nut. 39:1292–1296.
Kaur, R., Bedi, S., Mahajan, G., Kaur, G., Chauhan Bhagirath, S. 2016b. Physiological and biochemical indicators for assessing nitrogen-use efficiency in rice (Oryzasativa) genotypes under dry direct seeding. Crop Pasture Sci. 67:1158–1167.
Khan, H.Z., Malik, M.A., Saleem, M.F. 2008. Effect of rate and source of organic material on the production potential of spring maize (Zea mays L.). Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 45:40–43.
Kichey, T., Heumez, E., Pocholle, P., Pageau, K., Vanacker, H., Dubois, F., Le Gouis, J., Hirel, B. 2006. Combined agronomic and physiological aspects of nitrogen management in wheat (Triticumaestivum L.). Dynamic and integrated views highlighting the central role of the enzyme glutamine synthetase. New Phytol. 169:265–278.
Kikuchi, H., Hirose, S., Toki, S., Akama, K., Takaiwa, F. 1999. Molecular characterization of A Gene for alanine aminotransferase from rice (Oryzasativa). Plant Mol. Biol. 39:149–159.
Li, X., Zhou, L., Liu, F., Zhou, Q., Cai, J., Wang, X., Dai, T., Cao, W., Jiang, D. 2016. Variations in protein concentration and nitrogen sources in different positions of grain in wheat. Front. Plant Sci. 7:942.
Liu, C., Wang, Y., Pan, K., Zhu, T., Li, W., Zhang, L. 2014. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism in leaves and roots of dwarfbamboo (Fargesiadenudata Yi) subjected to drought for two consecutive years during sprouting period. J. Plant Growth Regul. 33:243–255.
Ma, L. 2004. Absorption and utilization of amino acids by plant. J. Food Sci. Technol. 3:102–107.
Maqsood, M., Shehzad, M.A., Abbas, M. 2012. Seed rate effects on fodder yield and quality attributes of maize (Zeamays L.) varieties sown under irrigated conditions. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 49:155–162.
Mehta, S., Bedi, S., Vashist, K.K. 2011. Performance of winter maize (Zea mays) hybrid to planting methods and nitrogen levels. Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 81:50–54.
Shehzad, M.A., Nadeem, M.A., Sarwar, M.A., Naseer, G.M., IIahi, F. 2012. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (Triticumaestivum L.). Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 49:227–234.
Tonhazy, N.E. 1960a. Glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase – In: Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.): Methods of Enzyme Analysis. pp. 665–698. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.
Tonhazy, N.E. 1960b. Glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase – In: Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.): Methods of Enzyme Analysis. pp. 665–698. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.
Wang, Y.H., Wang, Z.Q., Zhnag, C. F., Zhou, Z.X. 2004. Effect of nitrate nitrogen on activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase during development of cucumber cotyledon. J. Bot. Res. 22:534–538.
Xiong, F., Yua, X., Zhou, L., Zhang, J., Jina, Y., Lia, D., Wang, Z. 2014. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on distribution of starch granules in different regions of wheat endosperm. The Crop J. 2:46–54.
Yousuf, P.Y., Abd Allah, E.F., Nauman, M., Asif, A., Hashem, A., Alqarawi, A.A., Ahmad, A. 2017. Responsive proteins in wheat cultivars with contrasting nitrogen efficiencies under the combined stress of high temperature and low nitrogen. Genes (Basel) 29: pii: E356.
Communicated by J. Zhang
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Asthir, B., Jain, D. & Bains, N.S. Supplementation of Nitrogen and its Influence on Free Sugars, Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Roots and Internodes of Wheat. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 46, 658–667 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.46.2018.048
- amino acids
- nitrogen doses
- Triticum aestivum