Attenuation of Lead Toxicity by Promotion of Tolerance Mechanism in Wheat Roots by Lipoic Acid
This study was performed to determine the possible ameliorative effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) against oxidative stress evoked by lead (Pb) toxicity on 5-d wheat seedlings and elucidate how this ameliorative process was mediated. Pb toxicity caused a significant reduction in early seedling growth as evidenced by stunted root and coleoptile growth. To cope with the Pb toxicity, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly stimulated compared to the control. However, in spite of high activities of these enzymes, contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation level were significantly high compared with the control. Similarly, Pb toxicity caused a marked decrease in the level of reduced forms of ascorbate and glutathione and thus it changed their reduced/oxidized ratio in favor of oxidized forms. On the other hand, LA supplementation further promoted uptake, accumulation, and transportation of Pb by stimulating tolerance mechanism involving ion uptake/accumulation at a high level. Moreover, ROS content and lipid peroxidation level were recorded as lower than that of the stressed-ones alone. In addition, while Pb toxicity markedly reduced amylase activity by decreasing Ca2+ content in endosperms, LA supplementation mitigated the reduction in amylase activity by increasing Ca2+ content. The changes in amylase activity were supported by isozymes patterns. Taken together, LA carried out its ameliorative effect against Pb toxicity via stimulation of tolerance mechanism, and this mechanism was linked to regeneration of the other main antioxidant compounds due to its own antioxidant property instead of activation of antioxidant enzymes.
Keywordslipoic acid Pb oxidative stress antioxidant activity
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