Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown throughout the world for its specific quality. Fertilization and planting density are two crucial factors that affect waxy wheat yield and photosynthetic capacity. The objectives of the research were to determine the effects of fertilization and planting density on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components of waxy wheat, including Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, PH, HI, Pn, Gs, Ci, E and WUE using the method of field experiment, in which there were three levels (150, 300, and 450 kg ha–1) of fertilizer application rate and three levels (1.35, 1.8, and 2.25 × 106 plants ha–1) of planting density. The results suggested that photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components had close relationship with fertilization levels and planting density. Under the same plant density, with the increase of fertilization, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI, Pn, Gs, E and WUE increased and then decreased, PH increased, but Ci decreased. Under the same fertilization, with the increase of plant density, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI increased and then decreased, PH, Pn, Gs and E increased, PH and WUE declined. The results also showed that F2 (300 kg ha–1) and D2 (1.8 × 106 plants ha–1) was a better match in this experiment, which could obtain a higher grain yield 4961.61 kg ha–1. Consequently, this combination of fertilizer application rate and plant densities are useful to get high yield of waxy wheat.
seed setting rate
grain number per plant
grain weight per plant
net photosynthesis rate
intercellular carbon dioxide concentration
water use efficiency
Baloch, M.S., Shah, I.T.H., Nadim, M.A., Khan, M.I., Khakwani, A.A. 2010. Effect of seeding density and planting times on growth and yield attributes of wheat. Japs J. of Animal and Plant Sci. 20:239–242.
Bertic, B., Loncaric, Z., Vukadinovic, V., Vukobratovic, Z., Vukadinovic, V. 2007. Winter wheat yield responses to mineral fertilization. Cereal Res. Commun. 35:245–248.
Bi, C.R., Bai, Z.Y., Yang, S., Li, C.D., Zheng, J.F., Li, D.X., Tang, G.L. 2010. Effects of planting density on radiation resource utilization of the wheat colony. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica 5:171–176.
Chen, X., Hao, M.D. 2015. Low contribution of photosynthesis and water-use efficiency to improvement of grain yield in Chinese wheat. Photosynthetica 4:519–526.
Chen, X.M. 2000. The research progress on waxy wheat. Acta Triticale Crops 2:82–85.
Ciampitti, I.A., Vyn, T.J. 2011. A comprehensive study of plant density consequences on nitrogen uptake dynamics of maize plants from vegetative to reproductive stages. Field Crops Res. 121:2–18.
Evans, L.T. 1993. Crop Evolution, Adaptation and Yield. CUP. Cambridge, MA, USA.
Evans, L.T. 1998. Greater crop production: whence and whither? In: Waterlow, J.C., Armstrong, D.G., Fowden, L., Riley, R. (eds), Feeding a World Population of More Than Eight Billion People – A Challenge to Science. Oxford University Press. Cary, NC, USA. pp. 89–97.
Fujita, S., Kumagai, T., Yanagimachi, M., Sakuraba, S., Sanpei, R., Yamoto, M., Tohara, H. 2012. Waxy wheat as a functional food for human consumption. J. Cereal Sci.. 55:361–365.
Gao, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, J.C., Liu, W.G., Dang, Z.P., Cao, W.X., Qiang, Q. 2009. Effects of mulch, N fertilizer, and plant density on wheat yield, wheat nitrogen uptake, and residual soil nitrate in a dryland area of China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 85:109–121.
Geng, W., Xue, X., Wang, Z.M. 2006. Effects of deep fertilization on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of winter wheat. Acta Triticale Crops 26:166–168.
Gooding, M.J., Pinyosinwat, A., Ellis, R.H. 2002. Responses of wheat grain yield and quality to seed rate. J. Agric. Sci. 138:317–331.
Horvat, D., Loncaric, Z., Vukadinovic, V., Drezner, G., Bertic, B., Dvojković, K. 2006. The influence of mineral fertilization on winter wheat yield and quality. Cereal Res. Commun. 34:429–432.
Hou, H.Z., Lv, J.F., Guo, T.W. 2011. Planting density in soil over film-mulched and bunch-seeded wheat. Crops 3:101–104.
Hu, H.H., Li, L.P., Li, R.Q., Li, H.L., Li, Y.M. 2008. Effect of sowing date and planting density on the yield formation of a winter wheat cultivar Henong 822. Acta Triticale Crops 3:490–495.
Kolb, L.N., Gallandt, E.R., Mallory, E.B. 2012. Impact of spring wheat planting density, row spacing, and mechanical weed control on yield, grain protein, and economic return in Maine. Weed Sci. 60:244–253.
Li, Z.A., Ning, K. 2001. Primary report on waxy wheat studies. Acta Triticale Crops 21:95–96.
Liu, J.H., Niu, J.Y., Yan, Z.L. 2009. Physiological characteristics of grain filling in high quality winter wheat under different fertilizer application dose and plant density. Chinese J. of Eco-Agriculture. 17:890–894.
Liu, P., Guo, W.S., Xu, Y.M., Feng, C.N., Zhu, X.K., Peng, Y.X. 2006. Effect of planting density on grain yield and quality of weak – gluten and medium – gluten wheat. Acta Triticale Crops 5:117–121.
Ma, N., Yuan, J., Li, M., Li, J., Zhang, L.Y., Liu, L.X., Naeem, M.S., Zhang, C.L. 2014. Ideotype population exploration: Growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting density in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). PloS one 9:e114232.
Nakano, H., Morita, S. 2009. Effects of seeding rate and nitrogen application rate on grain yield and protein content of the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar ‘Minaminokaori’ in southwestern Japan. Plant Production Sci. 12:109–115.
Qu, H.J., Li, J.C., Shen, X.S., Wei, F.Z., Wang, C.Y., Zhi, S.J. 2009. Effects of plant density and seeding date on accumulation and translocation of dry matter and nitrogen in winter wheat cultivar Lankao Aizao 8. Acta Agron. Sin. 35:124–131.
Reynolds, M.P., Ginkel, M.V. 2000. Avenues for genetic modification of radiation use efficiency in wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 343:459–473.
Richards, R.A. 2000. Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops. J. Exp. Bot. 343:447–458.
Roques, S.E., Berry, P.M. 2016. The yield response of oilseed rape to plant population density. J. Agr. Sci. 154:305–320.
Sinclair, T.R., Purcell, L.C., Sneller, C.H. 2004. Crop transformation and the challenge to increase yield potential. Trends in Plant Sci. 9:70–75.
Wang, X., Li, Z.Y., Ma, W.Q., Zhang, F.S. 2010. Effects of fertilization on yield increase of wheat in different agro-ecological regions of China. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 43:2469–2476.
Wu, L.F., Ou, Y.Z. 2008. Photosynthesis of two spike-type cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different sowing rates. Acta Agron. Sin. 28:618–625.
Yamori, W., Kondo, E., Sugiura, D., Terashima, I., Suzuki, Y., Makino, A. 2016. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: Insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6/f complex. Plant Cell Environ. 39:80–87.
Zhang, D.S., Zhang, L.Z., Liu, J.G., Han, S., Wang, Q., Evers, J., Liu, J., van der Werf, W., Li, L. 2014a. Plant density affects light interception and yield in cotton grown as companion crop in young jujube plantations. Field Crops Res. 169:132–139.
Zhang, Y., Dai, X.L., Jia, D.Y., Li, H.Y., Wang, Y.C., Li, C.X., Xu, H.C., He, M.R. 2016. Effects of plant density on grain yield, protein size distribution, and bread making quality of winter wheat grown under two nitrogen fertilisation rates. Eur. J. Agron. 73:1–10.
Zhang, Y., Ding, G.D., Cai, H.M., Xu, F.S., Shi, L. 2014b. Effects of different planting methods on root system architechture and yield of oilseed rape. J. Huazhong Agric. Univ. 33:25–32.
Zhao, G.C., Liu, L.H., Yang, Y.S., Zhang, Y., Yang, Z.S. 2002. Effect of fertilizer application on population quality, root system distribution, grain yield and quality in super-high-yielding wheat. Acta Agriculturae Boreall-Sinica 17:82–87.
Zhao, X.Q., Xu, J.L., Zhao, M., Lafitte, R., Zhu, L., Fu, B.Y., Gao, Y.M. 2008. QTLs affecting morpho-physiological traits related to drought tolerance detected in overlapping introgression lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Sci. 174:618–625.
Zi, Y., Ding, J.F., Huang, Z.J., Wang, L.A., Ju, F., Zhai, C.Y., Jiang, W., Zhu, X.K., Li, C.Y., Guo, W.S. 2015. Population quality indexes for waxy wheat Yangnuomai 1 with yield higher than 8000 kg ha–1. Acta Agron. Sin. 5:797–805.
This research was supported by the Sino-Dutch Topic Research Partnership (JSTP, 2013 DEG 31380), Ministry of Science and Technology of China. And the key project of Chongqing Application and Development Plan (cstc 2013 yykfB 80012).
Communicated by J.H. Zhang
Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM)
About this article
Cite this article
Fang, X.M., She, H.Z., Wang, C. et al. Effects of Fertilizer Application Rate and Planting Density on Photosynthetic Characteristics, Yield and Yield Components in Waxy Wheat. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 46, 169–179 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.45.2017.058
- waxy wheat
- fertilizer application rate
- planting density
- photosynthetic characteristics
- yield components