Tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol are potent antioxidants of rice grains, and they may play an important role in the germination and growth of rice plants. In this study, the objective was to examine the effects of germination time on contents of Toc, T3, GO and ascorbate, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities in the grains of two different rice varieties, namely TN71 and KS139. Samplings were conducted at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after imbibition. The results showed that T3 and GO contents, but not Toc increased during seedling emergence. Toc content showed a trend of decrease from 0 DAI to 6 DAI. Contrasting to KS139, the AsA content in the grains of TN71 increased with increasing DAI. KS139 showed a time-dependent increase in the dehydroascorbate level, while that of TN71 remains unchanged at all times. TN71 showed significant increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the late germination stages (9 DAI); with the exception of APX, KS139 exhibited a relatively constant enzymatic activities throughout the germination period. The changes in the malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels were minimum before 6 DAI, however a significant increase was noted at 9 DAI. This study indicates that besides the enzymatic antioxidants, the increase in T3 and GO contents may play a role in countering the oxidative stress during rice grain germination.
days after imbibition
polyunsaturated fatty acids
reactive oxygen species
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The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan for partial funding of this study under grant number NSC 102-2313-B-002-045.
Communicated by A. Pécsváradi
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Lin, T.C., Ng, L.T. Effects of Germination Time on Antioxidant Contents and Enzymatic Antioxidant Activities in the Grains of Different Rice Varieties. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 46, 79–88 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.45.2017.052
- rice grain
- germination time
- seedling emergence
- enzymatic antioxidants