Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 79–88 | Cite as

Effects of Germination Time on Antioxidant Contents and Enzymatic Antioxidant Activities in the Grains of Different Rice Varieties

  • T. C. Lin
  • L. T. NgEmail author


Tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol are potent antioxidants of rice grains, and they may play an important role in the germination and growth of rice plants. In this study, the objective was to examine the effects of germination time on contents of Toc, T3, GO and ascorbate, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities in the grains of two different rice varieties, namely TN71 and KS139. Samplings were conducted at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after imbibition. The results showed that T3 and GO contents, but not Toc increased during seedling emergence. Toc content showed a trend of decrease from 0 DAI to 6 DAI. Contrasting to KS139, the AsA content in the grains of TN71 increased with increasing DAI. KS139 showed a time-dependent increase in the dehydroascorbate level, while that of TN71 remains unchanged at all times. TN71 showed significant increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the late germination stages (9 DAI); with the exception of APX, KS139 exhibited a relatively constant enzymatic activities throughout the germination period. The changes in the malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels were minimum before 6 DAI, however a significant increase was noted at 9 DAI. This study indicates that besides the enzymatic antioxidants, the increase in T3 and GO contents may play a role in countering the oxidative stress during rice grain germination.


rice grain germination time seedling emergence tocols enzymatic antioxidants 











total ascorbate




days after imbibition


ascorbate peroxidase


superoxide dismutase




glutathione peroxidase


glutathione reductase


polyunsaturated fatty acids


reactive oxygen species


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan for partial funding of this study under grant number NSC 102-2313-B-002-045.

Supplementary material

42976_2018_4601079_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (437 kb)
Effects of Germination Time on Antioxidant Contents and Enzymatic Antioxidant Activities in the Grains of Different Rice Varieties


  1. Andarwulan, N., Fardiaz, D., Wattimena, G.A., Shetty, K. 1999. Antioxidant activity associated with lipid and phenolic mobilization during seed germination of Pangium edule Reinw. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:3158–3163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beauchamp, C.O., Fridovich, I. 1971. Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal. Biochem. 44:276–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai, F., Mei, L.J., An, X.L., Gao, S., Tang, L., Chen, F. 2011. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant responses during seed germination of Jatropha curcas. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 13:25–30.Google Scholar
  4. El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H., Bailly, C. 2008. Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy. Plant Signal. 3:175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gill, S.S., Tuteja, N. 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 48:909–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hall, G.S., Laidman, D.L. 1968. The pattern and control of isoprenoid quinone and tocopherol metabolism in the germinating grain of wheat (Triticum vulgare). Biochem. J. 108:475–482.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Henryk, Z., Halina, K. 2003. The content of tocopherols in Cruciferae sprouts. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 12:25–31.Google Scholar
  8. Hsu, Y.T., Kao, C.H. 2008. Distinct roles of abscisic acid in rice seedlings during cadmium stress at high temperature. Bot. Stud. 49:335–342.Google Scholar
  9. Ivanov, S.A., Aitzetmuller, K. 1995. Studies on the tocopherol and tocotrienol compositions of the seed oils of some members of the Apiaceae family. Fett. Wissen. Technol. 97:24–29.Google Scholar
  10. Kato, M., Shimizu, S. 1987. Chlorophyll metabolism in higher plants. VII. Chlorophyll degradation in senescing tobacco leaves phenolic-dependent peroxidative degradation. Can. J. Bot. 65:729–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim, J.S., Han, D., Moon, K.D., Rhee, J.S. 1995. Measurement of superoxide dimutase-like activity of natural antioxidants. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59:822–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moongngarm, A., Saetung, N. 2010. Comparison of chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of germinated rough rice and brown rice. Food Chem. 122:782–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mukherjee, S.P., Choudhuri, M.A. 1983. Implication of water stress induced changes in the levels of endogenous ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide in Vigna seedlings. Physiol. Plant 58:166–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ng, L.T., Huang, S.H., Chen, Y.T., Su, C.H. 2013. Changes of tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol and γ-aminobutyric acid levels in the germinated brown rice of pigmented and non-pigmented cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:12604–12611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nakano, Y., Asada, K. 1981. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell. Physiol. 22:867–880.Google Scholar
  16. Noctor, G., Foyer, C.H. 1998. Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 49:249–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pinto, E., Sigaud-Kutner, T.C.S., Leitão, M.A.S., Okamoto, O.K., Morse, D., Colepicolo, P. 2003. Heavy metal induced oxidative stress in algae. J. Phycol. 39:1008–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pullman, G.S., Copeland, B., Zeng, X. 2009. Analysis of seed redox chemicals in loblolly pine to improve somatic embryo growth and germination. Tree Improvement and Genetics – the 30th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. Blacksburg, VA, USA. pp. 56–65.Google Scholar
  19. Sattler, S.E., Gilliland, L.U., Magallanes-Lundback, M., Pollard, M., DellaPenna, D. 2004. Vitamin E is essential for seed longevity and for preventing lipid peroxidation during germination. Plant Cell 16:1419–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schopfer, P., Plachy, C., Frahry, G. 2001. Release of reactive oxygen intermediates (superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and peroxidase in germinating radish seeds controlled by light, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol. 125:1591–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sgherri, C.L.M., Loggini, B., Puliga, S., Navari Izzo, F. 1994. Antioxidant system in Sporobolus stapfianus: changes in response to desiccation and rehydration. Phytochem. 35:561–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tommasi, F., Paciolla, C., de Pinto, M.C., de Gara, L. 2001. A comparative study of glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during germination of Pinus pinea L. seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 52:1647–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Verma, S., Dubey, R.S. 2003. Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants. Plant Sci. 164:645–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wojtyla, L., Garnczarska, M., Zalewski, T., Bednarski, W., Ratajczak, L., Jurga, S. 2006. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds. J. Plant Physiol. 163:1207–1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wong, R.S., Radhakrishnan, A.K. 2012. Tocotrienol research: past into present. Nutr. Rev. 70:483–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yoshie, A., Kanda, A., Nakamura, T., Igusa, H., Hara, S. 2009. Comparison of gamma-oryzanol contents in crude rice bran oils from different sources by various determination methods. J. Oleo Sci. 58:511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ChemistryNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations