The Impacts of Various Ratios of Different Hydrocolloids and Surfactants on Quality Characteristics of Corn Starch Based Gluten-free Bread
In this study, the effects of 18 different additive formulas constituted with xanthan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) gums (hydrocolloids) were examined in the manufacture of corn starch based gluten-free bread. The additives used as alone or in combinations in the bread manufacture. It was also added with mono- and diglyceride based gel preparations and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides for improving gluten-free bread characteristics. The volumes and softness of the breads have been measured as maximum when HPMC was used alone in increasing order from 1 to 2%. While HPMC gum improved the volume and softness of bread more than Xanthan gum, Xanthan gum improved the grain structure of crumb more than HPMC. In general, these hydrocolloids gave a good quality of bread in terms of moisture content, grain structure and Neumann baking coefficient values, when they were used with combinations rather than being used individually. Addition of surfactant to all combinations always enhanced the grain structure of bread. In contrast, it either worsened or did not change the volume and softness of the bread.
Keywordscorn starch gluten-free bread hydrocolloid surfactant bread quality
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- AACCI 2000. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists International. Method 10-05.01, Method 10-10.03, Method 44-01.01. 10th ed. The Association. St. Paul, MN, USA.Google Scholar
- Bechtel, W.G. 1955. A review of bread staling research. Tran. AACC 13:108–121.Google Scholar
- Bell, D.A. 1990. Methylcellulose as a structure enhancer in bread baking. Cereal Food. World 35:1001–1006.Google Scholar
- Birnbaum, H. 1978. Surfactants and shortenings in cake making. Bakers Dig. 2:28–38.Google Scholar
- Ciclitira, P.J., Ellis, H.J., Lundin, K.E.A. 2005. Gluten free diet – what is toxic? Best Pract. Res. Cl. Ga. 19:359–371.Google Scholar
- Ebeler, S.E., Walker, C.E. 1984. Effects of various sucrose fatty acid ester emulsifiers on high-ratio white layer cakes. J. Food Sci. 49:380–383, 388.Google Scholar
- International Food Information Council [IFIC] Foundation and United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. 2010. Food Ingredients and Colors. IFIC Foundation. Washington DC, USA. 8 p.Google Scholar
- Krog, N. 1981. Theoretical aspects of surfactants in relation to their use in breadmaking. Cereal Chem. 58:158–164.Google Scholar
- Neumann 1929. What temperatures are safe for drying grain? Muhle 66:1610–1611.Google Scholar
- O’Neill, J. 2010. Gluten-free foods: trends, challenges, and solutions. Cereal Food World 55:220–223.Google Scholar
- Ozer, M.S. 1998. Kepekli ekmeklerin bazı niteliklerinin incelenmesi ve kalitelerinin iyileştirilmesi olanakları (Determination of some characteristics of bran added breads and improvement of their qualities). Ph.D. Thesis. Cukurova University. Adana, Turkey. pp. 64–113. (in Turkish)Google Scholar
- Ozer, M.S., Altan, A. 1995. Effect of using some additives on bread rolls quality. Gida 20:357–363.Google Scholar
- Pomeranz, Y., Shellenberger, J.A. 1971. Bread Science and Technology. The Avi Publishing Company. Westport, Connecticut, USA, pp. 169–186.Google Scholar
- Pyler, E.J. 1988. Baking Science and Technology. Sosland Publishing Company, Merriam, Kansas, USA, pp. 443–496, 815–842.Google Scholar
- Stauffer, C.E. 1990. Functional Additives for Bakery Foods. Chapman and Hall. London, UK.Google Scholar
- Toufeili, I., Dagher, S., Shadarevian, S., Noureddine, A., Sarakbi, M., Farran, M.T. 1994. Formulation of gluten-free pocket-type flat bread optimization of methylcellulose, gum arabic, and egg albumin level by response surface methodology. Cereal Chem. 71:594–601.Google Scholar
- TSE 1987. TS 5000 Bread. Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
- Uluoz, M. 1965. Analytical Methods of Wheat, Flour and Bread. 1st ed. Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Offset Facilities. Izmir, Turkey, 91 p.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service 2015. U.S. Codex and Codex Alimentarius, Regulations and Policies. www.fsis.usda.gov. Accessed 02/09/2015.Google Scholar
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.