Impact of Terminal Heat Stress on Pollen Viability and Yield Attributes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Global warming is rising as a serious concern affecting agricultural production worldwide. Rice is a staple food crop and the threshold temperature for its pollination is 35 °C. A rise in temperature above this value can cause pollen sterility and may severely affect fertilization. Therefore, a study emphasizing the rise in temperature with respect to pollen viability was conducted with eleven rice genotypes during kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 in indigenous field conditions. Increasing mean temperature by 12 °C at full flowering was found to severely affect the spikelet attributes of the crop. All genotypes showed spikelet sterility above 90% during both seasons. The study indicated that increased temperature may limit rice yield by affecting spikelet fertility and grain filling. The net reduction in grain yield was 30.4% and 27.6% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A clear reduction in pollen size under high temperature was shown by scanning electron microscopy.
Keywordshigh temperature Oryza sativa pollen viability grain yield yield loss
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The authors are thankful to the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, for financial support under the All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Programme. We also thankful to the Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, and the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pantnagar, for providing their microscope facilities.
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