Age-Related and Function-Dependent Regional Alterations of Free L- and D-Aspartate in Postembryonic Chick Brain
- 1 Downloads
D-aspartate (D-Asp) modulates adult neural plasticity and embryonic brain development by promoting cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Here, developmental changes of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp were determined during the frst postembryonic days, a time window for early learning, in selected brain regions of domestic chickens after chiral separation and capillary electrophoresis. Extracellular concentration (ECC) of EAAs was measured in microdialysis samples from freely moving chicks. ECC of D-Asp (but not L-EAAs) decreased during the frst week of age, with no considerable regional or learning-related variation. ECC of L-Asp and L-Glu (but not of D-Asp) were elevated in the mSt/Ac in response to a rewarding stimulus, suggesting importance of Asp-Glu co-release in synaptic plasticity of basal ganglia. Potassium-evoked release of D-Asp, with a protracted transient, was also demonstrated. D-Asp constitutes greater percentage of total aspartate in the extracellular space than in whole tissue extracts, thus the bulk of D-Asp detected in tissue appears in the extracellular space. Conversely, only a fraction of tissue L-EAAs can be detected in extracellular space. The lack of changes in tissue D-Asp following avoidance learning indicates a tonic, rather than phasic, mechanism in the neuromodulatory action of this amino acid.
KeywordsD-aspartic acid avian brain postembryonic development arcopallium amygdala
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 10.Dermon, C. R., Zikopoulos, B., Panagis, L., Harrison, E., Lancashire, C. L., Mileusnic, R., Stewart, M. G. (2002) Passive avoidance training enhances cell proliferation in 1-day-old chicks. Eur. J. Neurosci. 16, 1267–1274.Google Scholar
- 11.Dunlop, D. S., Neidle, A., McHale, D., Dunlop, D. M., Lajtha, A. (1986) The presence of free D-aspartic acid in rodents and man. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141, 27–32.Google Scholar
- 12.Errico, F., Rossi, S., Napolitano, F., Catuogno, V., Topo, E., Fisone, G., D’Aniello, A., Centonze, D., Usiello, A. (2008) D-aspartate prevents corticostriatal long-term depression and attenuates schizophrenia-like symptoms induced by amphetamine and MK-801. J. Neurosci. 28, 10404–10414.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Gundersen, V., Storm-Mathisen, J. (2000) Chapter II Aspartate-neurochemical evidence for a transmitter role. In: Ottersen, O. P., Storm-Mathisen, J. (eds), Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 18. Amsterdam, Elsevier. pp. 45–62.Google Scholar
- 18.Hanics, J., Bálint, E., Milanovich, D., Zachar, G., Adám, A., Csillag, A. (2012) Amygdalofugal axon terminals immunoreactive for L-aspartate or L-glutamate in the nucleus accumbens of rats and domestic chickens: a comparative electron microscopic immunocytochemical study combined with anterograde pathway tracing. Cell Tissue Res. 350, 409–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Hanics, J., Teleki, G., Alpár, A., Székely, A. D., Csillag, A. (2016) Multiple amygdaloid divisions of arcopallium send convergent projections to the nucleus accumbens and neighboring subpallial amygdala regions in the domestic chicken: a selective pathway tracing and reconstruction study. Brain Struct. Funct. 222, 301–315.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Hashimoto, A., Kumashiro, S., Nishikawa, T., Oka, T., Takahashi, K., Mito, T., Takashima, S., Doi, N., Mizutani, Y., Yamazaki, T., Kaneko, T., Ootomo, E. (1993) Embryonic development and postnatal changes in free D-aspartate and D-serine in the human prefrontal cortex. J. Neurochem. 61, 348–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.McCabe, B. J. (2013) Imprinting. Interdiscip. Rev. Cogn. Sci. 4, 375–390.Google Scholar
- 30.Neidle, A., Dunlop, D. S. (1990) Developmental changes in free D-aspartic acid in the chicken embryo and in the neonatal rat. Life Sci. 46, 1517–1522.Google Scholar
- 32.Puelles, L. (2007) The chick brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
- 33.Punzo, D., Errico, F., Cristino, L., Sacchi, S., Keller, S., Belardo, C., Luongo, L., Nuzzo, T., Imperatore, R., Florio, E., De Novellis, V., Affnito, O., Migliarini, S., Maddaloni, G., Sisalli, M. J., Pasqualetti, M., Pollegioni, L., Maione, S., Chiariotti, L., Usiello, A. (2016) Age-related changes in D-Aspartate oxidase promoter methylation control extracellular D-Aspartate levels and prevent precocious cell death during brain aging. J. Neurosci. 36, 3064–3078.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.