Evaluation of Antiproliferative and Hepatoprotective Effects of Wheat Grass (Triticum Aestivum)

Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the pharmacological potential of various extracts (hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of dried shoots of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) in terms of antiproliferative and hepatoprotective potential of T. aestivum. The total chlorophyll content in dried shoots of T. aestivum was 0.54 ± 0.016 g/L (chlorophyll-a: 0.288 ± 0.05 g/L; and chlorophyll-b; 0.305 ± 0.05 g/L), while total carotene content was 0.42 ± 0.066 g/L. In addition, the chloroform extract of dried shoots of T. aestivum (250 µg/mL) exhibited 87.23% inhibitory effect with potent cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell line. Moreover, chloroform and methanol extracts significantly reduced the levels of SGOT, and SGPT enzymes, as well as total bilirubin content, while raised the level of total protein in a concentration-gradient manner, confirming the potent hepatoprotective effect of T. aestivum. A possible mechanism of apoptosis of the chloroform extract of dried shoots of T. aestivum in terms of its potent antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cancer cell line can also be proposed in this study. Our findings clearly demonstrate that T. aestivum has a significant pharmacological potential that night be used for antiproliferative and hepatoprotective purposes.

References

  1. 1.

    Adams, J. V., Slaght, K. S., Boogaard, M. A. (2004) An automated approach to lithcfield and Wilcoxon’s evaluation of dose-effect experiments using the R package LW1949. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 35, 3058–3061.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Adewusi, E. A., Afolayan, A. J. (2010) A review of natural products with hepatoprotective activity. J. Med. Plant Res. 4, 1318–1334.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Aneta, W., Jan, O. S., Renata, C. (2007) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem. 105, 940–949.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cervantes-Paz, B., Yahia, E. M., Ornelas-Paz, J. J., Victoria-Campos, C. I., Ibarra-Junquera, V, Perez-Martinez, J. D., Escalante-Minakata, P. (2014) Antioxidant activity and content of chlorophylls and carotenoids in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at intermediate stages of ripening. Food Chem. 146, 188–196.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chudapongse, N., Kamkhunthod, M., Poompachee, K. (2010) Effects o. Phyllanthus urinaria extract on HepG2 cell viability and oxidative phosphorylation by isolated rat liver mitochondria. J. Ethnopharmacol. 130, 315–319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Egner, P. A., Munoz, A., Kensler, T. W. (2003) Chemoprevention with chlorophyll in individuals exposed to dietary aflatoxin. Mut. Res. 524, 209–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Elliott, R. (2005) Mechanisms of genomic and non-genomic actions of carotenoids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1740, 147–154.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ferruzzi, M. G., Blakeslee, J. (2007) Digestion, absorption, and cancer preventative activity of dietary chlorophyll derivatives. Nutri. Res. 27, 1–12.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Jayaraman, J. (2011) Estimation of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids. In Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry. New Age. Int. 1, 141–142.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lee, R. H., Cho, J. H., Jeon, Y. J., Bang, W., Cho, J. J., Choi, N. J., Seo, K. S., Shim, J. H., Chae, J. I. (2015) Quercetin induces antiproliferative activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by suppressing specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Drug Dev. Res. doi:10.1002/ddr.21235.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Maekawa, L., Lamping, R., Marcacci, M., Maekawa, M., Nassri, M., Koga, I. C. (2007) Antimicrobial activity of chlorophyll based solutions o. Candida albicans an. E. faecalis. RSBO 4, 36–40.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Malick, C. P., Singh, M. B. (1980) Plant Enzymology and Histoenzymology. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Rana, S. V., Pal, R., Vaiphei, K., Ola, R. P., Singh, K. (2010) Hepatoprotection by carotenoids in isoniazid-rifampicin induced hepatic injury in rats. Biochem. Cell Biol. 88, 819–834.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Reddy, V. R., Bikshapathi, G., Reddy, K. M. (2014) Hepatoprotective activity of extract o. Erythroxylum monogynum in albino rats. Int. J. Pure Appl. Biosci. 2, 58–62.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sarkar, D., Sharma, A., Talukder, G. (1994) Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin as modifiers of genotoxic effects. Mut. Res. 318, 239–247.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Shenoy, K. A., Soumyaji, S. N., Bairy, K. L. (2001) Hepatoprotective effect o. Ginkgo Biloba in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats. Indian J. Pharmacol. 33, 260–264.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Singh, S., Mehta, A., Mehta, P. (2011) Hepatoprotective activity o. Cajanus cajan against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. 3, 146–147.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Singh, N., Verma, P., Pandey, B. R. (2012) Therapeutic potential of organi. Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass) in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases: An overview. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. 4, 10–14.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Tang, Z. Y., Ye, S. L., Liu, Y. K., Qin, L. X., Sun, H. C., Ye, Q. H., Wang, L., Zhou, J., Qiu, S. J., Li, Y. (2004) A decade’s studies on metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 130, 187–196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yin, Q. H., Yan, F. X., Zu, X. Y., Wu, Y. H., Wu, X. P., Liao, M. C., Deng, S. W., Yin, L. I., Zhuang, Y. Z. (2012) Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of carvacrol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG-2. Cytotechnology 64, 43–51.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Shruti Shukla or Vivek K. Bajpai.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rajoria, A., Mehta, A., Mehta, P. et al. Evaluation of Antiproliferative and Hepatoprotective Effects of Wheat Grass (Triticum Aestivum). BIOLOGIA FUTURA 68, 150–161 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1556/018.68.2017.2.3

Download citation

Keywords

  • T. aestivum (wheat grass)
  • antiproliferative
  • hepatoprotective
  • apoptosis mechanism
  • pharmacological significance