Essential Oil Composition of Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum L.) in Symbiotic Relationship with Piriformospora Indica and Paclobutrazol Application Under Salt Stress

Abstract

Essential oil content and oil composition of paclobutrazol treated sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plant inoculated with Piriformospora indica under salt stress were investigated by GC-MS. The results show a slight increase in essential oil content when basil plants subjected to moderate salinity stress (3 dS m–1 of NaCl). It decreased significantly with increasing salinity level to 9 dS m–1. The findings revealed that leaf area, above ground and leaf dry weights, essential oil content and yield were significantly affected by P. indica inoculation, however paclobutrazol application significantly influenced essential oil yield but not content. Fungal symbiosis as well as paclobutrazol application ameliorated the negative effects of salinity on dry matter and essential oil yield. The main constituents found in the volatile oil of O. basilicum in control treatment were Geranial (26.03%), Neral (24.88%) and Estragole (24.78%). The compounds concentrations showed some differences in P. indica and paclobutrazol treatments. The results demonstrate that micorrhiza-like fungi concomitantly increase essential oil production and biomass in sweet basil, a medicinal herb rich in commercially valuable essential oils.

References

  1. 1.

    Adams, R. P. (2007) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Allured Publ. Corp., San Diego.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Allen, M. F., Moore, Jr. T. S. Christensen, M. (1980) Phytohormone changes in Bouteloua gracilis infected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae: I. Cytokinin increases in the host plant. Can. J. Bot. 58, 371–374.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ansari, M. W., Trivedi, D. K., Sahoo, R. K., Gill, S. S., Tuteja, N. (2013) A critical review on fungi mediated plant responses with special emphasis to Piriformospora indica on improved production and protection of crops. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 70, 403–410.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Ashoori, M., Ashraf, S., Alipour, Z. T. (2015) Investigating the effect of two species of mycorrhiza fungi and salinity on growth, function and chlorophyll content on Ocimum basilicum. Intl. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 8, 503–509.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Baltruschat, H., Fodor, J., Harrach, B. D., Niemczyk, E., Barna, B., Gullner, G., Janeczko, A., Kogel, K. H., Schäfer, P., Schwarczinger, I., Zuccaro, A. (2008) Salt tolerance of barley induced by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica is associated with a strong increase in antioxidants. New Phytol. 180, 501–510.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bañón, S., González, A., Cano, E. A., Franco, J. A., Fernández, J. A. (2002) Growth, development and colour response of potted Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Mondriaan to paclobutrazol treatment. Sci. Hortic. 94, 371–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bauer, K., Garbe, D., Surburg, H. (2008) Common fragrance and flavor materials: preparation, properties and uses. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Carvalho Filho, J. L., Blank, A. F., Alves, P. B., Ehlert, P. A., Melo, A. S., Cavalcanti, S. C., Arrigoni-Blank, M. D., Silva-Mann, R. (2006) Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 16, 24–30.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Copetta, A., Lingua, G., Berta, G. (2006) Effects of three AM fungi on growth, distribution of glandular hairs, and essential oil production in Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese. Mycorrhiza 16, 485–494.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Dolatabadi, H. K., Goltapeh, E. M., Moieni, A., Jaimand, K., Sardrood, B. P., Varma, A. (2011) Effect of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on plant growth and essential oil yield in Thymus vulgaris in vitro and in vivo experiments. Symbiosis 53, 29–35.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ghahfarokhi, R. M., Goltapeh, M. E. (2010) Potential of the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica; Sebacina vermifera and Trichoderma species in biocontrol of take-all disease of wheat Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in vitro. J. Agric. Technol. 6, 11–18.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Hajihashemi, S., Kiarostami, K., Enteshari, S., Saboora, A. (2006) The effects of salt stress and paclobutrazol on some physiological parameters of two salt tolerant and salt sensitive cultivars of wheat. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 9, 1370–1374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Haque, M. A., Hossain, M. S., Rahman, M. Z., Rahman, M. R., Hossain, M. S., Mosihuzzaman, M., Nahar, N., Khan, S. I. (2005) Isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus of Ocimum basilicum. J. Pharm. Sci. 4, 127–130.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Hussain, A. I., Anwar, F., Sherazi, S. T., Przybylski, R. (2008) Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Food. Chem. 108, 986–995.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Käfer, E. (1977) Meiotic and mitotic recombination in Aspergillus and its chromosomal aberrations. Adv. Genet. 19, 33–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Manivannan, P., Jaleel, C. A., Kishorekumar, A., Sankar, B., Somasundaram, R., Panneerselvam, R. (2008) Protection of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants from salt stress by paclobutrazol. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 61, 315–318.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Morales, C., Cusido, R. M., Palazon, J., Bonfill, M. (1993) Tolerance of mint plants to soil salinity. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 44, 184–186.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Oelmüller, R., Sherameti, I., Tripathi, S., Varma, A. (2009) Piriformospora indica, a cultivable root endophyte with multiple biotechnological applications. Symbiosis 49, 1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sepahri, M., Saleh Rastin, N., Hossieni Salkedeh, G., Khayam Nekouie, M. (2009) Effect of endophytic fungus, Piriformospora indica, on growth and resistance of Hordeum vulgare L. to salinity stress. Rangeland 3, 508–518 (In Persian).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sharafzadeh, S., Zare, M. (2011) Influence of growth regulators on growth and secondary metabolites of some medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family. Adv. Environ. Biol. 1, 2296–2303.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Sun, C., Johnson, J. M., Cai, D., Sherameti, I., Oelmüller, R., Lou, B. (2010) Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance in Chinese cabbage leaves by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, the expression of drought-related genes and the plastid-localized CAS protein. J. Plant. Physiol. 167, 1009–1017.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Vadassery, J., Ritter, C., Venus, Y., Camehl, I., Varma, A., Shahollari, B., Novák, O., Strnad, M., Ludwig-Müller, J., Oelmüller, R. (2008) The role of auxins and cytokinins in the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis and Piriformospora indica. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 21, 1371–1383.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Varma, A., Verma, S., Sahay, N., Bütehorn, B., Franken, P. (1999) Piriformospora indica, a cultivable plant-growth-promoting root endophyte. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 2741–2744.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Vierheilig, H., Coughlan, A. P., Wyss, U., Piché, Y. (1998) Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 5004–5007.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Vos, C. M., Yang, Y., De Coninck, B., Cammue, B. P. (2014) Fungal (-like) biocontrol organisms in tomato disease control. Biol. Control, 74, 65–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Wogiatzi, E., Papachatzis, A., Kalorizou, H., Chouliara, A., Chouliaras, N. (2011) Evaluation of essential oil yield and chemical components of selected basil cultivars. Biotechnol. Equip. 25, 2525–2527.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    World Health Organization. (2011) Traditional medicine fact sheet No 134. December, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Yeshitela, T., Robbertse, P. J., Stassen, P. J. (2004) Paclobutrazol suppressed vegetative growth and improved yield as well as fruit quality of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango (Mangifera indica) in Ethiopia. N. Z. J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 32, 281–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Zhang, H. W., Song, Y. C., Tan, R. X. (2006) Biology and chemistry of endophytes. Nat. Prod. Rep. 23, 753–771.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Zuccarini, P., Okurowska, P. (2008) Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and fertilization on growth and photosynthesis of sweet basil under salt stress. J. Plant Nutr. 31, 497–513.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sara Keramati.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Keramati, S., Pirdashti, H., Babaeizad, V. et al. Essential Oil Composition of Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum L.) in Symbiotic Relationship with Piriformospora Indica and Paclobutrazol Application Under Salt Stress. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 67, 412–423 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1556/018.67.2016.4.7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Essential oil
  • GC-MS
  • Ocimum basilicum
  • paclobutrazol
  • Piriformospora indica
  • salinity