Unraveling injustice: Race and class impact of medicaid exclusions of transition-related health care for transgender people

  • Pooja S. Gehi
  • Gabriel Arkles
Special Issue Article


This article explores how Medicaid policies excluding or limiting coverage for transition-related health care for transgender people reproduce hierarchies of race and class. In many legal contexts, a medical model informs views of transgender experience(s), often requiring proof of specific types of surgery prior to legal recognition of transgender people’s identity and rights. Simultaneously, state Medicaid programs disregard the medical evidence supporting the necessity of transition-related care when considering whether to cover it. In this article, the authors analyze the contradiction between the medicalization of trans experience(s) and government’s refusal to recognize the legitimacy and necessity of trans health care. The authors examine the social, economic, legal, political, medical, and mental health impact of these policies on low-income trans communities, paying particular attention to the disproportionate impact on communities of color. The authors conclude with recommendations for legal and health care systems to improve access to transition-related health care for low-income trans people.

Key words

transsexual gender identity economic justice sex reassignment health care disparities 


  1. Abraham, F. (1998). Genital reassignment on two male transvestites (Original work published 1931). International Journal of Transgenderism, 2(1). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www. Google Scholar
  2. Adduci, P. B. (1987, April 29). Memorandum from Patricia B. Adduci, commissioner, State of New York Department of Motor Vehicles to all issuing offices. Albany.Google Scholar
  3. Aetna. (2002). Clinical policy bulletin: Sex reassignment surgery. Retrieved July 22, 2007, from http://www. 699/o615.html Google Scholar
  4. Ala. Admin. Code r. 560-X-6-.13(35) (2006).Google Scholar
  5. Alaska Admin. Code tit. 7, § 43.010(11) (2006).Google Scholar
  6. American Medical Association Committee on Human Sexuality. (1972). Human sexuality. Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people in the U.S. Retrieved December 1, 2006, from http://www.amnestyusa. org/outfront/stonewalled/report.pdf Google Scholar
  9. Amtrak. (2006). Passenger security and identification. Retrieved December 4, 2006, from http://www.amtrak. com/servlet/ContentServer?cid=1080080554204&pagename=Amtrak%2Fam2Copy%2FHot Deals Page& c=am2Copy Google Scholar
  10. Ariz. Admin. Reg. R9-27-203 (A)(7) (2007).Google Scholar
  11. Arkles,Z. G. (2005, August 15). Testimony to the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from the Sylvia Rivera Law Project website: testimony Arkles.pdf Google Scholar
  12. Arkles, Z. G. (2006, October 30). Comments pursuant to notice of intention to amend Article 207 of the New York City Health Code. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from comment.html Google Scholar
  13. Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development, 429 U.S. 252 (1977).Google Scholar
  14. Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN). (2004, January 22). Speaking the language of care: Language barriers to hospital access in America’s cities. Retrieved January 27, 2007, from ACORN website: Additional Accomplishments/National report.pdf Google Scholar
  15. ATA Airlines. (2006). Airport security measures. Retrieved December 4, 2006, from traveler resources/before you fly/security.html Google Scholar
  16. Barnett, S. (2004). Collateral sanctions and civil disabilities: The secret barrier to true sentencing reform for legislatures and sentencing commissions. Alabama Law Review, 55, 375–387.Google Scholar
  17. Beal v. Doe, 432 U.S. 438 (1977).Google Scholar
  18. Bockting, W. O., & Coleman, E. (1992). A comprehensive approach to the treatment of gender dysphoria. In W. O. Bockting & E. Coleman (Eds.), Gender dysphoria: Interdisciplinary approaches in clinical management (pp. 131–132). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  19. Brian L. v. Admin. Children’s Serv., 2006 Slip. Op. 06302 (App. Div. 1st Dep’t Aug. 24, 2006).Google Scholar
  20. Brown, G. R. (2001). Transvestism and gender identity disorder in adults. In G. O. Gabbard (Ed.), Treatments of psychiatric disorders (pp. 2007–2067). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, M., & Rounsley, C. (1996). True selves: Understanding transsexualism — For families, friends, coworkers, and helping professionals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Cal. Code Regs. tit. 9, § 1830.205 (2007).Google Scholar
  23. Califia, P. (1997). Sex changes: The politics of transgenderism. New York: Cleis Press.Google Scholar
  24. City of Cleburne, Texas, et al. v. Cleburne Living Center Inc., 473 U.S. 432 (1985).Google Scholar
  25. Clare, E. (1999). Exile and pride: Disability, queerness, and liberation. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.Google Scholar
  26. Clark, M. E., Landers, S., Linde, R., & Sperber, J. (2001, February 2). The GLBT Health Access Project: A state-funded effort to improve access to care. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www.ajph. org/cgi/reprint/91/6/895.pdf Google Scholar
  27. Clements, K., Wilkinson, W., Kitano, K., & Marx, R. (1999). HIV prevention and health service needs of the trans-gender community in San Francisco. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3(1/2). Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.symposion. com/ijt/hiv risk/clements.htm Google Scholar
  28. Clements-Nolle, K., Marx R., Guzman, R., & Katz, M. (2001). HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: Implications for public health intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 915–921.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Code Ark. R. 016 06 024.Google Scholar
  30. Code Del. Regs. 40 800 115.11.Google Scholar
  31. Code Me. R. 10-144 Ch. 101, Ch. II, § 90.07(C)(8) (2006a).Google Scholar
  32. Code Me. R. 10-148 Ch. 5, § V (b)(1.07) (2006b).Google Scholar
  33. Cole, C. M., Emory, L. E., Huang, T., & Meyer, W. J. (1994). Treatment of gender dysphoria (transsexualism). Texas Medicine, 90(5), 68–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cole, C. M., O’Boyle, M., Emory, L. E., & Meyer, W. J., III. (1997). Comorbidity of gender dysphoria and other major psychiatric diagnoses. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 13–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing. (1998, January 28). Title XXI state plan. Retrieved July 22, 2007, from http://www.chcpf. Google Scholar
  36. Community Health Advocacy Project & Transgender Law Center. (n.d.). Medi-Cal and gender reassignment procedures: Changing legal documents in California. Retrieved January 23, 2007, from National Center for Lesbian Rights website: Google Scholar
  37. Conn. Agencies Regs. § 17b-262-442(a) (2006a).Google Scholar
  38. Conn. Agencies Regs. § 17b-262-456(c)(4) (2006b).Google Scholar
  39. Conn. Agencies Regs. § 17b-262-612(k) (2006c).Google Scholar
  40. Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190 (1976).Google Scholar
  41. Crosby v. Reynolds, 763 F.Supp. 666 (D. Me. 1991).Google Scholar
  42. Crossing to safety: Transgender health and homelessness. (2002, June). Healing Hands, 6, 1–6. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www. Network/HealingHands/2002/June2002Healing Hands.pdf Google Scholar
  43. Dasti, J. L. (2002). Advocating a broader understanding of the necessity of sex-reassignment surgery under Medicaid. New York University Law Review, 77, 1738–1775.Google Scholar
  44. Davis, K. (1991). Inequality and access to health care. The Milbank Quarterly, 69, 253–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Denise R. v. Lavine, 47 A.D.2d 747 (App. Div. 2d. Dep’t, 1975); rev’d by Denise R. v. Lavine, 39 N.Y.2d (N.Y., 1976).Google Scholar
  46. DeSario v. Thomas, 139 F.3d 80 (1998), vacated by Slekis v. Thomas, 525 U.S. 1098 (1999).Google Scholar
  47. de Vries, A., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Delemarre-Van de Waal, H. (2006, January). Caring for transgender adolescents in BC: Suggested guidelines. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from transhealth/resources/library/tcpdocs/guidelines-adolescent.pdf Doe v. Bell, 194 Misc.2d 774, 775 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 2002).Google Scholar
  48. Doe v. Dep’tof Pub. Welfare, 257N.W.2d 816, 819 (1977).Google Scholar
  49. Ehrenreich, R. (1999). Dignity and discrimination: Toward a pluralistic understanding of workplace discrimination. Georgetown Law Journal, 88, 1–64.Google Scholar
  50. 18 N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. §§ 360-1.3, 360-3.3(a)(1) (2006).Google Scholar
  51. Farmer v. Brennan, 511 U.S. 825 (1994).Google Scholar
  52. Feinberg, L. (1997). Transgender warriors: Making history from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  53. Feldman, J., & Bockting, W. (2003, July). Transgender health [Electronic version]. Minnesota Medicine. Retrieved February 3, 2007, from http://www. Feldman.html Google Scholar
  54. Feldman, J., & Goldberg, J. (2006, January). Trans-gender primary care: Suggested guidelines for clinicians in British Columbia [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from http://www. guidelines-primcare.pdf Google Scholar
  55. Fellner, J., & Mauer, M. (1998). Losing the vote: The impact of felon disenfranchisement laws in the United States. Retrieved January 2, 2007, from Human Rights Watch website: reports98/vote/ Google Scholar
  56. FIERCE! and SRLP team up: Safe hormone access for teens. (2004, February). Sylvia Rivera Law Project Newsletter, 2, 1.Google Scholar
  57. 55 Pa. Code § 1121.54 (2007a).Google Scholar
  58. 55 Pa. Code § 1126.54(a)(7) (2007b).Google Scholar
  59. 55 Pa. Code § 1141.59(11) (2007c).Google Scholar
  60. 55 Pa. Code § 1163.59(a)(1) (2007d).Google Scholar
  61. 55 Pa. Code § 1221.59(a) (2007e). For Ourselves: Reworking Gender Expression. (2003, November). Aging. Retrieved May 15, 2007, from aging-nov2003.html Google Scholar
  62. 42 C.F.R. § 440.210.Google Scholar
  63. 42 C.F.R. § 440.230.Google Scholar
  64. 42 U.S.C.A. § 139a (2006).Google Scholar
  65. 42 U.S.C.A. § 601 et. seq.Google Scholar
  66. 42 U.S.C.A. § 1396a (2006).Google Scholar
  67. 42 U.S.C.A. § 1396d (2006).Google Scholar
  68. Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (Amendment XIV; 1868).Google Scholar
  69. Fox, L. P., Geyer, A. S., Husain, S., Della-Latta, P., & Grossman, M. E. (2004). Mycobacterium abscessus cellulitis and multifocal abscesses of the breasts in a transsexual from illicit intramammary injections of silicone. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 50, 450–456.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Freeman, H. E., Blendon, R. J., Aiken, L. H., Sudman, S., Mullinix, C. F., & Corey, C. R. (1987). Americans report on their access to health care. Health Affairs, 6, 6–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973).Google Scholar
  72. G.B. v. Lackner, 80 Cal.App.3d 64 (1978).Google Scholar
  73. Goins v. West Group, 635 N.W.2d 717 (Minn. 2001).Google Scholar
  74. Goode, V. M., & Johnson, C. E. (2003). Emotional harm in housing discrimination cases: A new look at a lingering problem. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30, 1143–1213.Google Scholar
  75. Gooren, L. J. G. (1999). Hormonal sex reassignment. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3(3). Retrieved July 27,2007, from http://www.symposion. com/ijt/ijt990301.htm Google Scholar
  76. Gordon, E. B. (1991). Transsexual healing: Medicaid funding of sex reassignment surgery. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 61–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Goulart, K. (1999). Trans 101. Retrieved January 2, 2007, from goulart trans101.htm Google Scholar
  78. Greyhound Lines Inc. (n.d.). How to purchase tickets. Retrieved December 4, 2006, from http://www. information/purchase.shtml Google Scholar
  79. Hage, J. J. (1996). Metaidoioplasty: An alternative phalloplasty technique in transsexuals. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 97, 161–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Handler, J. (1986). Conditions of discretion: Autonomy, community, bureaucracy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  81. Hare v. State of Minnesota, Dept. of Human Services, App. 2003.Google Scholar
  82. Harris v. McRae, 448 U.S. 297 (1980).Google Scholar
  83. Haw. Admin. Rules § 17-1728-19(10) (2006).Google Scholar
  84. Haw. Admin. Rules § 17-1737-84(22)(a) (2006).Google Scholar
  85. Health Plan of Nevada Inc. (2005). HPN SmartChoice Medicaid participant handbook. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from plans/MedicaidMembe rHandbook eng.pdf Google Scholar
  86. Help America Vote Act of 2002, 42 U.S.C.A. § 15483.Google Scholar
  87. Hirschl, R. (2005). Constitutionalism, judicial review, and progressive change: A rejoinder to McCain and Fleming. Texas Law Review, 84, 471–507.Google Scholar
  88. Hispanic AIDS Forum v. Estate of Bruno, 16 A.D.3d 294 (N.Y. App. Div. 1st Dep’t 2005).Google Scholar
  89. Holloway v. Arthur Andersen & Co., 566 F.2d 659 (9th Cir. 1977).Google Scholar
  90. Human Rights Campaign. Corporate Equality Index. Retrieved July 22, 2007, from placestowork/ Google Scholar
  91. Idaho Admin. Code § 39-250 (2006a).Google Scholar
  92. Idaho Admin. Code (2006b).Google Scholar
  93. Ill. Admin. Code tit. 89, § 140.6 (11) (2007).Google Scholar
  94. In re Heilig, 816 A.2d 75 (Md. 2003).Google Scholar
  95. In re Ladrach, 513 N.E.2d 828 (Ohio Prob. 1987).Google Scholar
  96. In re Lovo-Lara, 23 I. & N. Dec. 746 (B.I.A. 2005).Google Scholar
  97. International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy Inc. (1993). Health law standards of care for transsexualism. Retrieved July 22, 2007, from guidance/resources/ictlep soc.htm Google Scholar
  98. Intersex Society of North America. (n.d.). What is intersex? Retrieved January 30, 2007, from http://www. is intersex Google Scholar
  99. Iowa Admin. Code 441-78.1(249A)(4)(b) (2007).Google Scholar
  100. Israel, G., & Tarver, D. (1997). Transgender care: Recommended guidelines, practical information and personal accounts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Johnson v. Fresh Mark Inc., 337 F.Supp.2d 996 (N.D. Ohio 2003).Google Scholar
  102. Joslin, C. (2006, July). Fact sheet: Rights of transgender prisoners. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from Center for Lesbian Rights website: http://www.nclrights. org/publications/tgprisoners.htm Google Scholar
  103. K., D. (1983). Ordinary hassles. In L. Schoenfielder & B. Weiser (Eds.), Shadow on a tightrope: Writings by women on fat oppression (pp. 113–117). San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company.Google Scholar
  104. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. (2003, August). Immigrants’ health care coverage and access. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http:// Google Scholar
  105. Kaldera, R. (2003, October 25). InterSections: Transgender and intersexual. Workshop presented at the Transcending Boundaries conference, Amherst, MA.Google Scholar
  106. Kammerer, N., Mason, T., Connors, M., & Durkee, R. (2001). Transgender health and social science needs in the context of HIV risk. In W. Bockting & S. Kirk (Eds.), Transgender and HIV: Risks, prevention, and care (pp. 39–58). Binghamton, NY: Hayworth Press.Google Scholar
  107. Kijakazi, K. (1999, May 4). Social Security’s treatment of people of color and women [Senior Policy Analyst Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Budget Social Security Task Force]. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from the Center of Budget and Policy Priorities website: 5-4-99socsec.htm Google Scholar
  108. Komenaka, I. K., Ditkoff, B. A., Schnabel, F., Marboe, C. C., & Mercado, C. (2004). Free silicone injection causing polyarthropathy and septic shock. Breast Journal, 10, 160–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Koyama, E. (2006a). Is gender identity disorder an inter-sex condition? Retrieved January 28, 2007, from Google Scholar
  110. Koyama, E. (2006b). Medical abuse of intersex children and child sexual abuse. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from Google Scholar
  111. Ku, L., & Matani, S. (2001). Left out: Immigrants’ access to health care and insurance. Health Affairs, 20, 247–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lawrence, C. R. (1995). The id, the ego, and equal protection: Reckoning with unconscious racism. In K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, & K. Thomas (Eds.), Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement (pp. 235–257). New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  113. Lee, A. (2003, Spring). Nowhere to go but out: The collision between transgender & gender-variant prisoners and the gender binary in America’s prisons. Retrieved November 20, 2006, from http://www. lees paper2.pdf Google Scholar
  114. LexisNexis. (2005). New York City Police Department patrol guide manual. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  115. Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals. (n.d.). Common questions—Medicaid: I am an adult with no income, so why can’t I get Medicaid? Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www.dhh.louisiana. gov/faq.asp?ID=1& CID=7#Faq-544 Google Scholar
  116. Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967).Google Scholar
  117. Lunievicz, J. (1996, November). Transgender positive [Electronic version]. Body Positive, 9. Retrieved December 15, 2006, from http://www.thebody. com/bp/nov96/transg.html Google Scholar
  118. Mabel-Lois, L. (1983). We’ll worry about that when you’re thin. In L. Schoenfielder & B. Weiser (Eds.), Shadow on a tightrope: Writings by women on fat oppression (pp. 62–66). San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company.Google Scholar
  119. Maffei v. Kolaeton Indus. Inc., 164 Misc.2d 547 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1995).Google Scholar
  120. Mallon, G. (1999). Practice with transgendered children. In G. Mallon (Ed.), Social services with transgendered youth (pp. 49–64). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  121. Martino, M. (1977). Emergence: A transsexual autobiography. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  122. Mass. Regs. Code tit. 130, § 405.418 (A) (2006a).Google Scholar
  123. Mass. Regs. Code tit. 130, § 406.413 (c)(2)(C) (2006b).Google Scholar
  124. McAfee, L. (1998, June 4). Barriers to treatment: A patient’s view. Speech presented at the seminar Weight: What’s fat? What’s not? What can we do?, Office of Research on Women’s Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  125. MD Health & Men. (2006).Google Scholar
  126. Medline Plus Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. (2005a). Gynecomastia. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www2. va=Gynecomastia Google Scholar
  127. Medline Plus Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. (2005b). Hirsutism. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from va=hirsutism Google Scholar
  128. Medline Plus Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. (2005c). Hypogonadism. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from va=hypogonadism Google Scholar
  129. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health (2005a). Progesterone. Retrieved July 21, 2007, from http://www.nlm.nih. gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a604017.html Google Scholar
  130. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. (2005b). Testosterone transdermal. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from medmaster/a601118.html Google Scholar
  131. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health (2006a). Estrogen. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www. a682922.html#why Google Scholar
  132. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. (2006b). Spironolactone. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www. a682627.html#why Google Scholar
  133. Meyer, J. K., & Reter, D. J. (1979). Sex reassignment, follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 1010–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Meyer, W., Bockting, W. O., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Coleman, E., DiCeglie, D., Devor, H., et al. (2001, February).The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association’s standards of care for gender identity disorders, sixth version. International Journal of Transgenderism, 5(1). Retrieved May 15, 2007, from Google Scholar
  135. Michel, A., Ansseau, M., Legros, J. J., Pitchot, W., & Mormont, C. (2002). The transsexual: What about the future? European Psychiatry, 17, 353–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Miller v. Johnson, 515 U.S. 900 (1995).Google Scholar
  137. Minn. R. 9500.1100 (2006).Google Scholar
  138. Minn. Stat. § 256B.0625 (2006).Google Scholar
  139. Minter, S., & Daly, C. (2003). Trans realities: A legal needs assessment of San Francisco’s trans-gender communities. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from the Transgender Law Center website: http:// 20Realities%20Final%20Final.pdf Google Scholar
  140. Mont. Admin. Reg. 37.79.303(1)(q) (2006a).Google Scholar
  141. Mont. Admin. Reg. 37.86.104 (2006b).Google Scholar
  142. Morris, J. (1974). Conundrum. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  143. Mottet, L., & Ohle, J. M. (2003). Transitioning our shelters: A guide to making homeless shelters safe for transgender people. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from reports/reports/TransitioningOurShelters.pdf Google Scholar
  144. Murray, D. A. (2004, October 26). Who gets a desk appearance ticket in New York? Retrieved January 30, 2007, from to qualify.htm Google Scholar
  145. Namaste, V. K. (1999). HIV/AIDS and female to male transsexuals and transvestites: Results from a needs assessment in Quebec. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3(1/2). Retrieved December 14, 2006, from risk/ namaste.htm Google Scholar
  146. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2006). Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender violence in 2005. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Anti-Violence Project website: (Publications/AVP Reports/Hate Crime Reports/ 2005 National Hate Crimes Report).Google Scholar
  147. National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty. (2004, April 20). Homeless face increasing identification hurdles post 9/11: NLCHP study finds heightened I.D. restrictions deny many access to food and shelter benefits. Retrieved January 29, 2007, from _release.cfm?PRID=30 Google Scholar
  148. N.C. Admin. Code tit. 10A, r. 220.0301 (2006). Neb. Admin. R. & Regs. tit. 471, Ch. 18, § 003.03 (2006). Neumann, K., Welzel, C., Gonnermann, U., & Wolfradt, U. (2002). Satisfaction of MTF transsexuals with operative voice therapy—A questionnaire-based preliminary study. International Journal of Transgenderism, 6(4). Retrieved January 12, 2007, from 02.htmGoogle Scholar
  149. New York City Department of Homeless Services. (2006, January 31). Procedure no. 06-1-31: Transgender/intersex clients. Retrieved January 30, 2007, from DHS trans policy.pdf Google Scholar
  150. New York State Department of Motor Vehicles. (2006, February). Photo licenses and ID cards. Retrieved December 4, 2006, from http://www.nydmv.state. Google Scholar
  151. New York State Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance. (2003, November 1). Public assistance schedule for families without children. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  152. N.H. Code Admin. R. Ann. He-W 530.05(b)(5) (2006).Google Scholar
  153. N.H. Code Admin. R. Ann. He-W 531.06(g) (2006).Google Scholar
  154. 9 Colo. Code Regs. 2503-1 (2006).Google Scholar
  155. N.J. Admin. Code tit. 10, § 55-2.4(g) (2007).Google Scholar
  156. N.J. Admin. Code tit. 10, § 58A-4.3 (2007).Google Scholar
  157. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 10, § 85.25 (2006a).Google Scholar
  158. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 18, § 505.2(l) (2006b).Google Scholar
  159. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 18, § 533.5 (2006c).Google Scholar
  160. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs., tit. 18, § 635.2(o) (2006d).Google Scholar
  161. N.Y. Soc. Servs. Law § 366 (1) (2007).Google Scholar
  162. N.Y. St. Reg., July 16, 1997, at 26.Google Scholar
  163. N.Y. St. Reg., Jan. 7, 1998, at 11.Google Scholar
  164. N.Y. St. Reg., Mar. 25, 1998, at 5.Google Scholar
  165. Ohio Admin. Code § 5101:3-13-05(C) (2006).Google Scholar
  166. Oiler v. Winn Dixie, No. Civ.A. 00-3114, 2002 WL 31098541 (E.D.La. Sep. 16, 2002).Google Scholar
  167. Or. Admin. R. 410-120-1200(2)(z) (2006a).Google Scholar
  168. Or. Admin. R. 410-122-0255 (2006b).Google Scholar
  169. Osborne, D. (2004, June 27). Trans activists charge harassment in New York City: Police selectively requiring ID at public bathrooms at Christopher St. riverfront [Electronic version]. Gay City News. Retrieved July 22, 2007, from http://www. BRD=2729& PAG=461& dept id=568864& rfi=8 Google Scholar
  170. Pera, E. (2006, April 24). ID plan irks some homeless: Rules are changing at the Salvation Army and at shelters around the nation. The Ledger. Retrieved January 23, 2006, from http://www. center/id plan irks some.aspx Google Scholar
  171. Pérez-Peña, R. (2007, January 4). Spitzer’s health care pledge focuses on easing the way for those entitled. New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from Google Scholar
  172. Pfäfflin, F., & Junge, A. (1998). Sex reassignment: Thirty years of international follow-up studies after SRS—A comprehensive review, 1961–1991 (R. B. Jacobson & A. B. Meier, Trans.). Düsseldorf, Germany: Symposion Publishing. (Original work published 1992). Retrieved January 29, 2007, from Google Scholar
  173. Phillips, K. A., Mayer, M. L., & Aday, L. A. (2000, July/August). Barriers to care among racial/ethnic groups under managed care. Health Affairs, 19, 65–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Phillips v. Michigan Dep’t of Corr., 731 F.Supp. 792, 794 (W.D. Mich. 1990).Google Scholar
  175. Pinneke v. Preisser, 623 F.2d 546 (8th Cir. 1980).Google Scholar
  176. Raverdyke. (2002). Don’t be silly: A public service announcement. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.trans-health. com/displayarticle.php?aid=63 Google Scholar
  177. Real ID Act of 2005, 49 U.S.C. § 30301, §202(b)(3) (2007).Google Scholar
  178. Rees, M. (1999). Dear Sir or Madam: The autobiography of a female-to-male transsexual. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  179. Rehman, J., Lazer, S., Benet, A. E., Schaefer, L. C., & Melman, A. (1999). The reported sex and surgery satisfactions of 28 postoperative male-to-female transsexual patients. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28, 71–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Reis, J. P., Breslin, M. L., Iezzoni, L. I., & Kirschner, K. L. (2004, September). It takes more than ramps to solve the crisis of healthcare for people with disabilities. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://www. whitepaperfinal.pdf Google Scholar
  181. Richards, R. (1992). Second serve. New York: Madison Books.Google Scholar
  182. Richards v. U.S. Tennis Assoc., 93 Misc.2d (1977).Google Scholar
  183. Richardson, S. K. (1998, September 14). HCFAissues policy directive to mitigate Desario ruling. Retrieved January 4, 2007, from library.cfm?fa=download& resourceID=67841& print Google Scholar
  184. Rodger, M., & King, L. (2000). Drawing up and administering intramuscular injections: A review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, 574–577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996).Google Scholar
  186. Rush v. Johnson, 565 F.Supp. 856 (N.D. Ga. 1983).Google Scholar
  187. Sex Workers Project at the Urban Justice Center. (2006). Unfriendly encounters: Street-based sex workers and police in Manhattan, 2005. Retrieved November 20, 2006, from the Urban Justice Center website: swp fact sheet manhattan 2005.pdf Google Scholar
  188. Sharkey, J. (2006, February 12). Hand me your papers, please —American style. South Florida Sun-Sentinel, p. 2.Google Scholar
  189. Shultz, M. M. (1985). From informed consent to patient choice: A new protected interest. The Yale Law Journal, 95, 219–299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Slekis v. Thomas, 525 U.S. 1098 (1999).Google Scholar
  191. Smith v. Rasmussen, 249 F.3d 755 (8th Cir. 2001).Google Scholar
  192. Smith, Y., Van Goozen, S., Kuiper, A., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (2005). Transsexual subtypes: Clinical and theoretical significance. Psychiatry Research, 137, 151–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Snaith, P., & Hohberger, A. D. (1994). Transsexualism and gender reassignment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 418–419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Spade, D. (2003). Resisting medicine, re/modeling gender. Berkeley Women’s Law Journal, 18, 15–37.Google Scholar
  195. Spade, D. (2005, August 15). Testimony to the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from the Sylvia Rivera Law Project website: testimony Spade.pdf Google Scholar
  196. State of Mississippi Division of Medicaid. (2007, June 1). Provider policy manual. Retrieved September 18, 2007, from Provider _Manuals/Manuals/Section%202%20-%20 Benefits/Section%202.03%20-%20Exclusions.pdf Google Scholar
  197. State v. Williams, 88 Ohio St. 3d 513 (2000). Sylvia Rivera Law Project. (2007a). Abasic flow chart on disproportionate incarceration in transgender communities. Retrieved December 1, 2006, from the Sylvia Rivera Law Project website: http://srlp. org/disproportionateincarceration.doc Google Scholar
  198. Sylvia Rivera Law Project. (2007b). Abasic flow chart on disproportionate poverty in transgender communities. Retrieved December 1, 2006, from the Sylvia Rivera Law Project website: disporportionatepoverty.doc Google Scholar
  199. Sylvia Rivera Law Project. (2007c). SRLP and allies win major victory for trans homeless people. Retrieved May 15, 2007, from the Sylvia Rivera Law Project website: Google Scholar
  200. Tamar-Mattis, A. (2006). Exceptions to the rule: Curing the law’s failure to protect intersex infants. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law and Justice, 21, 59–110.Google Scholar
  201. Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-13-12-.04(1)(z) (2007a).Google Scholar
  202. Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-13-13-.04 (43)(c) (2007b).Google Scholar
  203. Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-13-13-10(3)(b)(63) (2007c).Google Scholar
  204. Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-13-14-10 (2007d).Google Scholar
  205. Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 68-3-203(d) (2006e).Google Scholar
  206. Thukral, J. (2005, Spring). Behind closed doors: An analysis of indoor sex work in New York City. Seicus Report, 33. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from SIECUS2005.pdf Google Scholar
  207. Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1396 et seq.Google Scholar
  208. Tom Waddell Health Center Transgender Team. (2001, August 14). Memorandum to interested parties from Tom Waddell Health Center Transgender Team. Retrieved January 4, 2007, from the San Francisco Department of Health website: http:// TransGendprotocols.pdf Google Scholar
  209. Transgender health. (2004, September 15). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from Public Health Seattle & King County website: glbt/transgender.htm Google Scholar
  210. The Transgender Network of Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG). (2004, May). Our trans children (4th ed.). Retrieved November 12, 2006, from PFLAG website: fileadmin/user upload/TNET/Our Trans Children Version _4.pdf Google Scholar
  211. 12 Va. Admin. Code § 30-50-100 (2006a).Google Scholar
  212. 12 Va. Admin. Code § 30-50-104 (2006b).Google Scholar
  213. 25 Tex. Admin. Code §37.113 (2006).Google Scholar
  214. 22 Mo. Code Regs. Ann. tit. 22, § 10-2.060(46) (2007).Google Scholar
  215. 22 Mo. Code Regs. Ann. tit. 22, § 10-2.067 (2007).Google Scholar
  216. Two sentenced in silicone death. (2003). Retrieved January 3, 2006, from Transsexual Road Map website: silicone/silicone-death.html Google Scholar
  217. U.S. Airways. (2006). Travel tips. Retrieved December 4, 2006, from traveltools/traveltips/traveltips.aspx Google Scholar
  218. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2007). Employment eligibility verification (form I-9).Google Scholar
  219. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (2004, September). Broken promises: Evaluating the Native American health care system. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from Google Scholar
  220. U.S. Social Security Administration. (2006). Program operations manual system, RM 00203.210 (c).Google Scholar
  221. U.S. v. Spivey, 127 Fed.Appx. 30, 35 (3d Cir. 1995).Google Scholar
  222. Vade, D. (2003, October 19). Medi-Cal and gender reassignment procedures. Workshop presented at Lavender Law conference, New York.Google Scholar
  223. van Kesteren, P. J. M, Asscheman, H., Megens, J. A. J., & Gooren, L. J. G. (1997). Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross-sex hormones. Clinical Endocrinology, 47, 337–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Verified petition, Doe v. Bell, on file with author.Google Scholar
  225. Vickers v. Toia, 66 A.D.2d 747 (N.Y. App. Div. 1st Dep’t 1976).Google Scholar
  226. Vt. Code R. 13170 008 (2001).Google Scholar
  227. Waysdorf, S. L. (1996). Fighting for their lives: Women, poverty, and the historical role of United States law in shaping access to women’s health care. Kentucky Law Journal, 84, 759–760.Google Scholar
  228. WebMD, Testosterone IM. Retrieved July 21, 2007, from 327-Testosterone+IM.aspx?drugid=10327& drugname= Testosterone+IM Google Scholar
  229. Welfare Law Center. (2002, April 2). Federal civil rights complaint charges New York City welfare agency for discriminating against people with psychiatric disabilities in welfare programs. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from rep/ocr/discrimpress03-02.htm Google Scholar
  230. Wis. Admin. Code § HFS 107.03 (2006).Google Scholar
  231. Wis. Stat. § 302.386(5m) (2005).Google Scholar
  232. Wolfe v. Horn, 130 F.Supp.2d 648, 652 (E.D. Pa. 2001).Google Scholar
  233. Wylie, K. (2004). ABC of sexual health: Gender related disorders. British Medical Journal, 329, 615–617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Wyn, R., Teleki, S., & Brown, E. R. (2000, July). Differences in access to health care among the moderate- and low-income population across urban areas. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from the Center for Health Policy Research website: DifferencesInAccessPolicyBrief.pdf Google Scholar
  235. Wyo. R. & Regs. Ch 26 s 6(i)(xvii) (2006). Xavier, J. (2000). The Washington transgender needs assessment survey. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from assessment1112.shtml Google Scholar
  236. Xcalibur, D. (1998). The man and the little girl within have finally joined hands. In L. Feinberg (Ed.), Trans liberation: Beyondpink or blue (pp. 77–78). Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sylvia Rivera Law ProjectNew York

Personalised recommendations