Expanding the flexibility of normative patterns in youth sexuality and prevention programs

Article

Abstract

This article reviews normative ways of presenting sexual health in intervention programs for the sex education and health care of young people in Latin America. These programs usually consider adolescence and youth as naturalizing categories and can be described as strongly preventionist. Based on our activities in Brazil, ongoing research and training of health professionals and activists, and inspiration from recent debates about youth sexuality and reproductive health in Latin America, we present and analyze face to face scenes from the field. Co-constructions of sexual citizenship and sexual subjects arise from local meanings and agendas that need to be shared and negotiated. We conclude: that sexual health and adolescence should be strongly contextualized categories; that adolescent identities should be understood as “ipse identities” (Ricoeur, 1991), or as reflexive identities constructed continuously in relationship with otherness; and that there is a promising relationship between sexuality and human rights.

Key words

youth adolescence sex education sexual health identity human rights 

References

  1. Aberastury, A., & Knobel, M. (1971). Adolescência normal [Normal adolescence]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidós.Google Scholar
  2. Arilha, M., & Calazans, G. (1998). Sexualidade na adolescência: O que há de novo? [Sexuality and adolescence: What’s new?]. In E. Berquó (Ed.), Jovens acontecendo na trilha das políticas públicas: Vol. 2. Brasília, Brazil: CPND.Google Scholar
  3. Aquino, E., Heilborn, M.L., Knauth, D., Bozon, M., Almeida, M.C., Menezes, G., & Araújo, J. (2003, July). Gravidez na adolescência em capitais brasileiras [Pregnancy in Brazilian capitals]. Paper presented at the meeting of the Brazilian Association of Postgraduate Studies in Collective Health Congress (ABRASCO), Brasília, Brazil.Google Scholar
  4. Arnett, J.J. (1998). Learning to stand alone: Adulthood in cultural and historical context. Human Development, 41, 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayres, J.R., & França-Junior, I. (1996). Saude do adolescente [Adolescent health]. In L. Scraiber, M.I. Nemes, & R.B. Mendes Gonçalves (Eds.), Saúde do adulto: Programas e ações na unidade básica (pp. 65–85). São Paulo, Brazil: Hucitec.Google Scholar
  6. Ayres, J.R., França Jr, I., Calazans, G., & Saletti-Filho, H.C. (1999). Vulnerabilidade e prevenção em tempos de Aids [Vulnerabilities and prevention in Aids times]. In R.M. Barbosa & R. Parker (Eds.) Sexualidades pelo avesso (pp. 49–73). São Paulo, Brazil: Editora 34.Google Scholar
  7. Ayres, J.R., Freitas, A.C., Santos, M.A.S., Saletti-Filho, H.C., & França Jr, I. (2003). Adolescência e Aids: Avaliação de uma experiência preventiva entre pares [Adolescence and AIDS: Evaluation of a preventive education experience among peers]. Interface — Comunic, Saúde, Educ, 7(12), 113–128.Google Scholar
  8. Barker, G. (2002). Engaging adolescent boys and young men in promoting sexual and reproductive health: Lessons, research and programmatic challenges. In Population Council (Ed.), Adolescent and youth sexual and reproductive health: Charting directions for a second generation of programming (pp. 109–154). New York: Population Council.Google Scholar
  9. Cáceres, C.P. (1998). Un programa comunitario en salud sexual con y para los jóvenes. Lima, Peru: UPCH/REDESSS.Google Scholar
  10. Calazans, G. (1999). Cultura adolescente e saúde: Perspectivas para a investigação [Adolescent culture and health: Investigation perspectives]. In M.C. Oliveira (Ed.), Cultura, adolescência, saúde: Argentina, Brasil, México (pp. 44–98). Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Consórcio de Programas em Saude Reprodutiva e Sexualidade na América Latina (CEDES/COLMEX/NEPO-UNICAMP).Google Scholar
  11. Calero, J.L., & Santana, F. (2001). Percepciones de um grupo de adolescenetes sobre iniciación sexual, embarazo y aborto. Revista Cubana Salud Publica, 27(1), 50–57.Google Scholar
  12. Chiavarro, M.C., Chumen, S., & Flacké, D.S. (2001). Por una sexualidade humana responsable. Revista Soc. Argent. Ginecologia Infanto Juvenil, 8(1), 15–17.Google Scholar
  13. Dowsett, G., & Aggleton, P. (1999). Young people and risk-taking in sexual relations. In M. Caraël (Ed.), UNAIDS, sex and youth: Contextual factors affecting risk for HIV/AIDS (pp. 10–55). Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  14. Enhancing Care Initiative/Brazil. (2003). Preliminary Report. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  15. Eggleston, E., Jackson, J., Rountree, W., & Pan, Z. (2000). Evaluation of a sexuality education program for young adolescents in Jamaica. Rev. Panam. Salud Pública, 7(2), 102–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoyos, R.C., & Sierra, A.V. (2001). El estrato sócio económico com factor predictor del uso constante de condón en adolescentes. Rev Saúde Pública, 35(6), 531–538.Google Scholar
  17. Kippax, S., & Kinder, P. (2002). Reflexive practice: The relationship between social research and health promotion in HIV prevention. Sex Education, 2(2), 91–104.Google Scholar
  18. Kirby, D., & Coyle, K. (1997). School-based programs to reduce sexual risk-taking behavior. Children and Youth Services Review, 19(5/6), 415–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knauth, D., Victoria, C., Leal, A., Heilborn, M.L., Rodhen, F., & Bozon, M. (2003, July). Trajetórias afetivo-sexuais dos jovens: urn estudo sobre sexualidade e juventude em três capitais [Affective and sexual trajectories: A study on sexuality and youth]. Paper presented at the meeting of the Brazilian Association of Postgraduate Studies in Collective Health Congress (ABRASCO), Brasilia, Brazil.Google Scholar
  20. Lyra, J. (1998). Paternidade adolescente: Da investigação a intervenção [Adolescent fatherhood: From research to intervention]. In M. Arilha, S. Ridenti, & B. Medrado (Eds.), Homens e masculinidades: Outras palavras. São Paulo, Brazil: ECOS/Editora 34.Google Scholar
  21. Mann, J., Gruskin, S., Grodin, M.A., & Annas, G.J. (1999). Health and human rights: A reader. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Millán, K.T., Valenzuela, G.S., & Vargas, N. (1995). Reproductive health in school adolescents: Knowledge, attitude and behavior in both sexes in a community at Santiago de Chile. Rev. Méd. Chile, 123(3), 368–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Monteiro, S. (2003). Qual prevenção? Aids, sexualidade e gênero em uma favela carioca [Which prevention? AIDS, sexuality and gender in a slum]. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Ed. FioCruz.Google Scholar
  24. MS/CEBRAP. (2003). Comportamento sexual da populaçao Brasileira e percepções do HIV/AIDS. Retrieved January 10, 2003, from Brasília Ministério da Saude, Programa Nacional de DST e AIDS, Dados e pesquisas em DST e AIDS Web site: http://www.aids.gov.br Google Scholar
  25. Oliveira, M.C. (Ed.). (1999). Cultura, adolescência, saúde: Argentina, Brasil, México. Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Consórcio de Programas em Saúde Reprodutiva e Sexualidade na América Latina (CEDES/COLMEX/NEPO-UNICAMP).Google Scholar
  26. Padilla de Gil, M. (2000). Sexualidade de los adolescentes Salvadorenos [Sexuality of the adolescentes from El Salvador]. Revista de la Sociedad Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología Infantil y de la Adolescencia, 7(3), 64–72.Google Scholar
  27. Paiva, V., Ayres, J.R., Buchalla, CM., & Hearst, N. (2002). Building partnership to respond to HIV/AIDS: NGOs and universities. AIDS 2002, 16(Suppl. 3), S76-S82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paiva, V. (2003). Beyond magic solutions: Prevention of HIV and AIDS as a process of psychosocial emancipation. Divulgação em Saúde para Debaten, 27, 192–203.Google Scholar
  29. Paiva, V. (2000b). Gendered scripts and the sexual scene: Promoting sexual subjects among Brazilian teenagers. In R. Parker, R. Barbosa, & P. Aggleton (Eds.), Framing the sexual subject (pp. 216–241). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Paiva, V. (2000a). Fazendo arte com a camisinha. São Paulo, Brazil: Summus.Google Scholar
  31. Paiva, V., Venturi, G., França-Jr, I., & Lopes, F. (2003). 2-Uso de preservativos pesquisa nacional MS/IBOPE, Brazil 2003. Retrieved December 2, 2003, from Programa Nacional de DST e AIDS, Dados e pesquisas em DST e AIDS Web site: http:/ /www.aids.gov.br/final/biblioteca/ ibope 2003/artigo preservativo.rtfGoogle Scholar
  32. Peres, C.A., Peres, R.A., Silveira, F., Paiva, V., Hudes, E., & Hearst, N. (2002). Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil. AIDS Education and Prevention, 14(Suppl. B), 36–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Pérez, F., Quintana, A., Hidalgo, C., & Dourojeanni, D. (2003). Sexualidad y mujeres jóvenesnegociación, protección y placer. Lima, Peru: Institute de Educación y Salud (IES).Google Scholar
  34. Pimenta, C., Rios, L.F., Brito, I., Terto Jr., V., & Parker, R. (2001). Passagem segura para a vida adulta: Oportunidades e barreiras para a saúde sexual dos jovens brasileiros. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: ABIA.Google Scholar
  35. Rance, S. (2001). ¿Por qué ciudadanía sexual? [Why sexual citizenship?]. Conciencia Latinoamericana (Revista de Católicas por el Derecho a Decidir), 13(3), 13–17. Retrieved October 10, 2003, from http://www.ciudadaniasexual.org Google Scholar
  36. Ricoeur, P. (1991). O si mesmo como urn outro. Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Papirus.Google Scholar
  37. Simon, C.P., Silva, R.C., & Paiva, V. (2002). Female juvenile prostitution and AIDS prevention programs in Brazil. Rev. Saúde Pública, 36(4 Suppl.), 82–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Stern, C., & Medina, G. (1999). Adolescência y salud en México. In M.C. Oliveira (Ed.), Cultura, adolescência, saúde: Argentina, Brasil, México (pp. 98–160). Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Consórcio de Programas em Saúde Reprodutiva e Sexualidade na América Latina (CEDES/COLMEX/NEPO-UNICAMP).Google Scholar
  39. Waizkin, H., Iriart, C., Estrada, A., & Lamadrid, S. (2001). Social medicine in Latin América: Productivity and dangers facing the major national groups. Lancet, 358, 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weller, S. (1999). Salud reproductiva de los/as adolescentes: Argentina 1990–1998. In M.C. Oliveira (Ed.), Cultura, adolescência, saúde (pp. 9–43). Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: CEDES/COLMEX/NEPO-UNICAMP.Google Scholar
  41. World Health Organization/Organização Mundial da Saúde. (1975). Instruction y asistencia en cuestiones de sexualidad humana: Formation de profesionales de la salud (Informes Tecnicos No. 572). Geneva/Genebra, Switzerland: World Health Organization/Organização Mundial da Saúde.Google Scholar
  42. World Health Organization/Organização Mundial da Saúde. (1986). Young people’s health: A challenge for society (Série Relatórios Técnicos No. 731). Geneva/Genebra, Switzerland: World Health Organization/Organização Mundial da Saúde.Google Scholar
  43. UNAIDS. (1997). Impact of HIV and sexual health education on the sexual behaviour of young people: A review update. Geneva, Switzerland: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vera Paiva
    • 1
  • José Ricardo Ayres
    • 2
  • Ivan França
    • 3
  1. 1.Social Psychology Department, Institute of PsychologyUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Preventive Medicine DepartmentMedical School, University of São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Maternal and Child Health Department, Faculty of Public HealthUniversity of São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations