Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 55–64 | Cite as

Molecular and morphological characterisation of Rhabdias picardiae Junker, Lhermitte-Vallarino et Bain, 2010 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Delaland’s River Frog, Amietia delalandii (Duméril et Bibron, 1841) (Amphibia: Pyxicephalidae) in South Africa

  • Roman SvitinEmail author
  • Yuriy Kuzmin
  • Louis du Preez


Rhabdias picardiae previously known from the Guttural Toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae) is described from a new host, Delaland’s River Frog, Amietia delalandii (Pyxicephalidae). The species identification is confirmed by analysis of the COI gene sequence and morphological comparison with the original description. Morphological details of apical structures in adult parasitic R. picardiae, namely, the shape and position of lips, the number and position of external labial papillae, and the buccal capsule morphology are described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The buccal capsule width and length, the distance from anterior end to nerve ring and excretory pore, and ratios of distance to vulva to body length and body length to width were identified as less variable metrical characters in the studied sample of 30 specimens. Adult specimens demonstrated differences in the position of lips in relation to the oral opening and position of the buccal capsule in relation to the oesophagus depending on the size (age) of worms. The infective larvae of R. picardiae are described for the first time and characterised by two lateral alae consisting of two ridges, triangular pseudolabia with rounded tops, and presence of ornamentation on the rounded tail tip.


Rhabdias South Africa Pyxicephalidae morphology COI ITS 28S 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baker M.R. 1979. The free-living and parasitic development of Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) in amphibians. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 57, 167–178. Scholar
  2. Baker M.R. 1982. Systematics and zoogeography of three new nem-atode parasites of the frog Breviceps sylvestris sylvestris FitzSimons from South Africa. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60, 3134–3142. Scholar
  3. Chabaud A.G. 1955. Remarques sur la symétrie céphalique des Nématodes et hypothèses concernant l’évolution de cette symétrie chez les phasmidiens parasites. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 80, 304–323.Google Scholar
  4. Chabaud A.G., Brygoo E.R., Petter A.G. 1961. Description et caractères biologiques de deux noveaux Rhabdias malgaches. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 36, 752–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chitwood B.G., Chitwood M.B. (Eds) 1938. Introduction to Nematology. Section I. Part II. Babylon, N.Y., pp. 55–124Google Scholar
  6. Du Preez L. H., Carruthers V. (Eds) 2011. Complete Guide to the Frogs of Southern Africa. Struik Nature, Cape Town, pp. 488Google Scholar
  7. Elgarhy M., Garo K. 2006. Rhabdias aegyptiaca sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from the lungs of Bufo regularis (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Egypt: Light and scanning electron microscopic study. Journal of Union of Arab Biologists Cairo. A, Zoology, 26, 127–137Google Scholar
  8. Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W., Lutz R., Vrijenhoek R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Junker K., Lhermite-Vallarino N., Barbuto M., Ineich I., Wanji S., Bain O. 2010. New species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhab-diasidae) from Afrotropical anurans, including molecular evidence and notes on biology. Folia Parasitologica, 57, 47–61. Scholar
  10. Kruger N., Du Preez L., Measey J. 2017. Parasite introduction to the endangered western leopard toad: Spill-over or spill-back? In: Abstract of the 13th Herpetological Association of Africa, 2223–27 January 2017, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, pp. 29Google Scholar
  11. Kuzmin Y.I. 2001. Rhabdias africanus sp. n. (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae), a new nematode species from South African toads (Amphibia, Bufonidae). Acta Parasitologica, 46, 148–150Google Scholar
  12. Kuzmin Y., Junker K., Du Preez L., Bain O. 2013. A new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Blommersia domerguei (Guibé) (Amphibia: Mantellidae) in Madagascar. Folia Parasitologica, 60, 469–474. Scholar
  13. Kuzmin Y., Junker K., Bain O., 2014. Infective larvae of Rhabdiasidae (Nematoda): comparative morphology of seven European species. Acta Parasitologica, 59, 31–41. Scholar
  14. Kuzmin Y., Du Preez L.H., Junker K. 2015. Some nematodes of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitising amphibians in French Guiana. Folia Parasitologica, 62, 031. 031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuzmin Y., Tkach V. 2017. Rhabdias. World Wide Web electronic publication. (Last accessed on 24/08/2017).Google Scholar
  16. Langford G.J., Janovy Jr. J. 2009. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans. Journal of Parasitology, 95, 1145–1155. Scholar
  17. Lhermite-Vallarino N., Bain O. 2004. Morphological and biological study of Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda) from African chameleons with description of a new species. Parasite, 11, 15–31. Scholar
  18. Lhermitte-Vallarino N., Barbuto M., Ineich I., Wanji S., Lebreton M., Chirio, L. et al. 2008. First report of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasoidea) from lungs of montane chameleons in Cameroon: description of two new species and notes on biology. Parasite 15, 553–564. Scholar
  19. Lhermitte-Vallarino N., Barbuto M., Junker K., Boistel R., Ineich I., Wanji S. et al. 2009. Rhabdias rhampholeonis n. sp. and R. mariauxi n. sp. (Nematoda, Rhabdiasoidea), first lung worms from leaf chameleons: description, molecular evidence and notes on biology. Parasitology International 58, 375–383. Scholar
  20. Melo F.T.V., Nascimento L.C.S., Macedo L.C., Santos J.N., Kuzmin Y. 2016. The morphology of free-leaving stages and immature parasites of Rhabdias paraensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) in Brasil. Acta Parasitologica 61, 42–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Runey W.M., Runey G.L., Lauter F H. 1978. Gametogenesis and fertilization in Rhabdias ranae Walton 1929: I. The parasitic hermaphrodite. Journal of Parasitology, 64, 1008–1014. Scholar
  22. Tkach V.V., Kuzmin Y., Pulis E.E. 2006. Rhabdias bakeri sp. n. from lungs of wood frog, Rana sylvatica, in North America: the last sibling of Rhabdias ranae? Journal of Parasitology, 92, 631–636. Scholar
  23. Tkach V.V., Halajian A., Kuzmin Y. 2014. Phylogenetic affinities and systematic position of Entomelas sylvestris Baker, 1982 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Breviceps sylvestris FitzSimons (Amphibia: Brevicipitidae) in South Africa. Systematic Parasitology, 87, 293–298. Scholar

Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of ZoologyKyivUkraine
  2. 2.African Amphibian Conservation Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and ManagementNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa
  3. 3.South African Institute for Aquatic BiodiversityGrahamstownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations