Acta Geophysica

, Volume 64, Issue 6, pp 2264–2288 | Cite as

Improved Data Preprocessing Algorithm for Time-Domain Induced Polarization Method with Digital Notch Filter

  • Shuang-Chao Ge
  • Ming Deng
  • Kai Chen
  • Bin Li
  • Yuan Li
Open Access


Time-domain induced polarization (TDIP) measurement is seriously affected by power line interference and other field noise. Moreover, existing TDIP instruments generally output only the apparent chargeability, without providing complete secondary field information. To increase the robustness of TDIP method against interference and obtain more detailed secondary field information, an improved data-processing algorithm is proposed here. This method includes an efficient digital notch filter which can effectively eliminate all the main components of the power line interference. Hardware model of this filter was constructed and Vhsic Hardware Description Language code for it was generated using Digital Signal Processor Builder. In addition, a time-location method was proposed to extract secondary field information in case of unexpected data loss or failure of the synchronous technologies. Finally, the validity and accuracy of the method and the notch filter were verified by using the Cole-Cole model implemented by Simulink software. Moreover, indoor and field tests confirmed the application effect of the algorithm in the fieldwork.

Key words

power line interference digital notch filter decay curve apparent chargeability SIMULINK 


  1. Butler, K.E., and R.D. Russell (1993), Subtraction of powerline harmonics from geophysical records, Geophysics 58, 6, 898–903, DOI: 10.1190/1.1443474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Butler, K.E., and R.D. Russell (2003), Cancellation of multiple harmonic noise series in geophysical records, Geophysics 68, 3, 1083–1090, DOI: 10.1190/1.1581080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dahlin, T., V. Leroux, and J. Nissen (2002), Measuring techniques in induced polarisation imaging, J. Appl. Geophys. 50, 3, 279–298, DOI: 10.1016/S0926-9851(02)00148-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deng, M., and Z.X. He (1998), Data Acquisition characteristics and data acquisition system of differentially-normalized method, Geoscience–J. Graduate School Chin. Univ. Geosc. 12, 3, 442–446 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  5. Deng, M., F. Liu, Q. Zhang, and K. Chen (2006), Long-span and multi-point synchronizing data acquisition for seafloor magnetotelluric based on union of marine and land, Sci. Technol. Rev. 24, 10, 28–32 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  6. Deng, M., W. Wei, Q. Zhang, and M. Wang (2008), Real-time backup technique for reducing data loss in seafloor magnetotelluric data acquisition, J. Cent. South Univ. (Science and Technology) 39, 2, 362–367 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  7. Dhillon, S.S., and S. Chakrabarti (2001), Power line interference removal from electrocardiogram using a simplified lattice based adaptive IIR notch filter. In: Proc. 23rd Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2001.1019561.Google Scholar
  8. Fan, S.J., and X.G. Yang (1979), SDJ-1 electric logging device, J. Shandong Eng. Col. 4, 94–104 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  9. Feng, Y.J., and Z.H. Fu (1994), DJD6-1 multichannel IP instrument, Geosci. Instr. 3, 33–36 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  10. Fiandaca, G., E. Auken, A.V. Christiansen, and A. Gazoty (2012), Time-domain-induced polarization: Full-decay forward modeling and 1D laterally constrained inversion of Cole-Cole parameters, Geophysics 77, 3, E213–E225, DOI: 10.1190/geo2011-0217.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galiana-Merino, J.J., D. Ruiz-Fernandez, and J.J. Martinez-Espla (2013), Power line interference filtering on surface electromyography based on the stationary wavelet packet transform, Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 111, 2, 338–346, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.04.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gazoty, A., G. Fiandaca, J. Pedersen, E. Auken, A. Christiansen, and J. Pedersen (2012), Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 16, 6, 1793–1804, DOI: 10.5194/hess-16-1793-201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hönig, M., and B. Tezkan (2007), 1D and 2D Cole-Cole-inversion of time-domain induced-polarization data, Geophys. Prospect. 55, 1, 117–133, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2006.00570.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hördt, A., R. Blaschek, A. Kemna, and N. Zisser (2007), Hydraulic conductivity estimation from induced polarisation data at the field scale–the Krauthausen case history, J. Appl. Geophys. 62, 1, 33–46, DOI: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2006. 08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hu, G.S. (2003), Digital Signal Processing: Theory, Algorithms and Implementation, 2nd ed., Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, 648 pp. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  16. Kohno, R., H. Imai, M. Hatori, and S. Pasupathy (1990), An adaptive canceller of cochannel interference for spread-spectrum multiple-access communication networks in a power line. Selected areas in communications, IEEE J. Sel. Area 8, 4, 691–699, DOI: 10.1109/49.54465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li, J.H., P.R. Lin, B.L. Xu, Q.K. Meng, and D. Li (2013), Study on multifunctional electromagnetic prospecting technology in mineral exploration, Adv. Mat. Res. 734, 178–182, DOI: 10.4028/ Scholar
  18. Marshall, D.J., and T.R. Madden (1959), Induced polarization, a study of its causes, Geophysics 24, 4, 790–816, DOI: 10.1190/1.1438659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martinho, E., F. Almeida, and M. Senos Matias (2006), An experimental study of organic pollutant effects on time domain induced polarization measurements, J. Appl. Geophys. 60, 1, 27–40, DOI: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2005.11. 003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nimunkar, A.J., and W.J. Tompkins (2007), EMD-based 60-Hz noise filtering of the ECG. In: Proc. 29th Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE EMBS 2007, DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352688.Google Scholar
  21. Pankratov, O.V., and A.I. Geraskin (2010), On processing of Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) data, Geol. Acta Int. Earth Sci. J. 8, 1, 31–49, DOI: 10.1344/105. 000001514.Google Scholar
  22. Sahambi, J., S. Tandon, and R. Bhatt (1997), Quantitative analysis of errors due to power-line interference and base-line drift in detection of onsets and offsets in ECG using wavelets, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 35, 6, 747–751, DOI: 10.1007/BF02510988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Seigel, H.O. (1959), Mathematical formulation and type curves for induced polarization, Geophysics 24, 3, 547–565, DOI: 10.1190/1.1438625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Su, M.-L., and K.-S. Chuang (2013), An ECG signal enhancement based on improved EMD. In: PIERS Proceedings, Taipei, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  25. Swift Jr., C. (1973), The L/M parameter of time-domain IP measurements–A computational analysis, Geophysics 38, 1, 61–67, DOI: 10.1190/1.1440334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tong, M., L. Li, W. Wang, and Y. Jiang (2006), A time-domain induced-polarization method for estimating permeability in a shaly sand reservoir, Geophys. Prospect. 54, 5, 623–631, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2006.00568.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wan, H., R. Fu, and L. She (2006), The elimination of 50 Hz power line interference from ECG using a variable step size LMS adaptive filtering algorithm, Life Sci. J. 3, 4, 90–93.Google Scholar
  28. Warden, S., S. Garambois, P. Sailhac, L. Jouniaux, and M. Bano (2012), Curvelet-based seismoelectric data processing, Geophys. J. Int. 190, 3, 1533–1550, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05587.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Winder, S. (2002), Analog and Digital Filter Design, 2nd ed., Newnes, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  30. Wu, J.G., and H. P. Dou (1996), DCX-1 active electric field differential instrument, Petrol. Inst. 10, 1, 21–24 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  31. Xia, J., and D. Miler (2000), Design of a hum filter for suppressing power-noise in seismic data, J. Environ. Eng. Geophys. 5, 2, 31–38, DOI: 10.4133/JEEG5. 2.31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang, D.J. (2009), Circuit design of late-model IP detection system, M.Sc. Thesis, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ge et al. 2016

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license,

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuang-Chao Ge
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ming Deng
    • 2
  • Kai Chen
    • 2
  • Bin Li
    • 3
  • Yuan Li
    • 2
  1. 1.North University of ChinaTaiyuan, ShanxiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Geo-detection Ministry of EducationChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Technical Department TSLCTaiyuan, ShanxiChina

Personalised recommendations