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Biologia

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 238–244 | Cite as

Low density lipoprotein increases amyloid precursor protein processing to amyloidogenic pathway in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells

  • Panit Yamchuen
  • Rattima Jeenapongsa
  • Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
  • Nanteetip LimpeanchobEmail author
Section Cellular and Molecular Biology

Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia has been considered as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition to low density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized LDL plays some roles in AD pathology. Neurodegenerative effect of oxidized LDL was supported by the increased oxidative stress in neurons. To further investigate the role of oxidized LDL, the present study aimed to test its effect on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. The release of soluble APP (sAPP) was evaluated in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to native (non-oxidized) or oxidized human LDL including mildly and fully oxidized LDL (mox- and fox-LDL). Non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic pathways were investigated using specific antibody against sAPPα and sAPPβ. The results demonstrate that oxidized LDL induced neuronal death in dose-dependent patterns. Mox-LDL mediated caspase-3 dependent apoptosis, whereas fox-LDL notably damaged cell membrane. At subtoxic concentration, only native but not oxidized LDL induced the release of sAPP dominantly in amyloidogenic pathway with no change in β-secretase activity. These results suggest that LDL and oxidized LDL play critical roles in AD pathogenesis via different pathways. Elevated serum LDL level together with high oxidative stress may aggravate the progression of AD.

Key words

Alzheimer’s disease low density lipoprotein oxidized LDL amyloid precursor protein β-secretase 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ADAM

A disintegrin and metalloproteinases

APP

amyloid precursor protein

Aβ

amyloid beta

BACE-1

β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1

BBB

blood-brain barrier

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

FBS

foetal bovine serum

fox-LDL

fully oxidized-low density lipoprotein

mox-LDL

mildly oxidized-low density lipoprotein

sAPPα

soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha

sAPPβ

soluble amyloid precursor protein beta

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Copyright information

© Slovak Academy of Sciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panit Yamchuen
    • 1
  • Rattima Jeenapongsa
    • 1
  • Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
    • 2
  • Nanteetip Limpeanchob
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy Practice and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Pharmacological Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesNaresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and Centre of Excellence in Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical ScienceNaresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand

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