Advertisement

Biologia

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 230–237 | Cite as

Prevalence of dorsal notch and variations in the foramen magnum shape in dogs of different breeds and morphotypes

  • Marta Kupczyńska
  • Norbert Czubaj
  • Karolina Barszcz
  • Wojciech Sokołowski
  • Michał Czopowicz
  • Halina PurzycEmail author
  • Małgorzata Dzierzęcka
  • Wojciech Kinda
  • Zdzisław Kiełbowicz
Section Zoology

Abstract

The study evaluated shape of the foramen magnum (FM) in dog with regard to its constitutional type (small, medium and large breeds) and morphotype (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic dogs). We used multi-slice CT scanner to examine occipital area of 138 purebreds dogs. Two studied groups could be distinguished–living animals undergoing standard diagnostic CT procedure (n = 47) and macerated skulls of euthanized dogs (n = 91). Morphometric analysis was focused on presence of dorsal notch within foramen magnum. This anatomical feature was present in 33.3% of examined dogs. It was more often observed in small size dogs (70%) and those of brachycephalic morphotype (94.1%). For the first time dorsal notch was noted in breeds such as French Bulldog, Fox Terrier, Keeshond, Standard Schnauzer, English Bulldog, Cocker Spaniel, Boxer and Rottweiler. We distinguished four different shape of FM: oval, pentagonal, rhomboid and circular. Most common FM shape was oval (41 dogs; 45%) whereas circular type was least observed (5 dogs; 5.5%). The pentagonal shape was noticed in 27 specimens (29.7%) and the rhomboid shape in 18 dogs (19.8%). Authors conclude that dorsal notch is not pathology and should be considered a morphological variation within the normal anatomy. Results presented in this study should be taken into account during interpretation of the CT images of the craniocervical junction.

Key words

foramen magnum occipital bone dorsal notch dog 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altman D.G., Machin D., Bryant T.N. & Gardner M.J. 2000. Statistics with Confidence: Confidence Intervals and Statistical Guidelines. 2nd Edition, BMJ Books, London, 254 pp. ISBN: 978-0-7279-1375-3Google Scholar
  2. Aragao J.A., de Oliveira Pereira R., da Cruz de Moraes R.Z. & Reis F.P. 2014. Morphological types of foramen magnum. Annu. Rev. Res. Biol. 4 (9): 1372–1378. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.9734/ARRB/2014/7875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baroni C.O., Brandao de Campos Fonseca Pinto A.C., Matera M.C., Mahrenholz Kaufmann Chamone C. & Murata Hayashi A. 2011. Morfologia e morfometria do forame magno em c˘aes das raças Poodle Toy e Yorkshire terrier [Morphology and morphometry of the foramen magnum in Toy Poodle and Yorkshire terrier dogs]. Cięncia Rura; 47 (7): 1239–1244. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782011000700021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chethan P., Prakash K.G., Murlimanju B.V., Prashanth K.U., Prabhu L.V., Saralaya V.V., Krishnamurthy A., Somesh M.S. & Kumar C.G. 2012. Morphological analysis and morphometry of the foramen magnum: an anatomical investigation. Turk. Neurosurg. 22 (4): 416–419. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.4297-11.1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chrószcz A., Janeczek M., Wojnar M. & Pospieszny N. 2006. Morphological analysis and morphometry of the foramen magnum of the American Staffordshire Terrier breed newborns. Med. Weter. 62 (9): 1002–1004.Google Scholar
  6. Cross H.R., Capello R. & Rusbridge C. 2009. Comparison of cerebral cranium volumes between cavalier King Charles spaniels with Chiari-like malformation, small breed dogs and Labradors. J. Small Anim. Pract. 50 (8): 399–405. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00799.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Czubaj N., Skibniewski M., Kupczyńska M., Barszcz K. & Sokołowski W. 2015. Clinical anatomy of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation in dogs. Med. Weter. 73 (3): 146–151.Google Scholar
  8. de Lahunta A. & Glass E.N. 2009. Veterinary Neuroanatomy and Clinical Neurology. 3rd Edition, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 540 pp. ISBN: 978-0-7216-6706-5Google Scholar
  9. Evans H.E. & de Lahunta A. 2013. Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog. 4th Edition, Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 872 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4377-0812-7Google Scholar
  10. Janeczek A., Chrószcz A. & Czerski A. 2011. Morphological investigations of the occipital area in adult American Staffordshire Terriers. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 40 (4): 278–282. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2011.01071.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Janeczek M., Chrószcz A., Onar V., Pazvant G. & Pospieszny N. 2008. Morphological analysis of the foramen magnum of dogs from the Iron Age. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 37: 359–361. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2008.00854.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kranioti E.F., Rosas A., Garcia-Vargas S., Estalrrich A., Bastir M. & Pena-Melian A. 2009. Remodeling patterns of occipital growth: a preliminary report. Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 292 (11): 1764–1770. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.20997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Murshed K.A., Cicekcibasi A.E. & Tuncer I. 2003. Morphometric evaluation of the foramen magnum and variations in shape: a study on computerised tomographic images of normal adults. Turk. J. Med. Sci. 33 (5): 301–306.Google Scholar
  14. Natsis K., Piagkou M., Skotsimara G., Piagkos G. & Skandalakis P. 2013. A morphometric anatomical and comparative study of the foramen magnum region in a Greek population. Surg. Radiol. Anat. 35 (10): 925–934. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-013-1119-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Onar V., Mutuş R. & Kahvecioğlu K.O. 1997. Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum in German Shepherd dogs (Alsatians). Ann. Anat. 179 (6): 563–568. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0940-9602(97)80022-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Onar V., Pazvant G., Gezer Ince N., Alpak H., Janeczek M. & Kiziltan Z. 2013. Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum of byzantine dogs excavated in Istanbul Yenikapi at the site of Theodosius Harbour. Medit. Arch. Archaeom. 13 (1): 135–142.Google Scholar
  17. Parker A.J. & Park R.D. 1974. Unusual deformity of the occipital bone in a dog (a case report). Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin. 69 (4): 438–441. PMID: 4493262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. ai]Richards G.D. & Jabbour R.S. 2009. Foramen magnum ontogeny in Homo sapiens: a functional matrix perspective. Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 294 (2): 199–216. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.21319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rusbridge C. & Knowler S.P. 2003. Hereditary aspects of occipital bone hypoplasia and syringomyelia (chiari-like malformation) in Cavalier KingCharles spaniels. Vet. Rec. 153 (4): 107–112. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.153.4.107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rusbridge C. & Knowler S.P. 2006. Coexistence of occipital dysplasia and occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel. J. Small Anim. Pract. 47 (10): 603–606. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00048.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sharp N.J.H. & Wheeler S.J. 2005. Small Animal Spinal Disorders. 2nd Edition, Elsevier Mosby, Edinburgh, 722 pp. ISBN: 978-0-7234-3209-8Google Scholar
  22. Simoens P., Poels P., Vyt P. & Lauwers H. 1994a. Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum in a Pekingese dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55 (1): 34–39. PMID: 8141494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Simoens P., Poels P., Vyt P. & Lauwers H. 1994b. Variabiliteit van het foramen magnum en occipitale dysplasie bij de hond. Vlaams Diergeneeskd Tijdschr. 63: 44–53.Google Scholar
  24. Wąsowicz M., Kupczyńska M., Wielądek A. & Barszcz K. 2009. Morphometric analysis of occipital bone in the domestic cat in comparison with selected skull size parameters and with special regard to skull morphotype. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 12 (2): 251–258. PMID: 19645357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Watson A.G., de Lahunta A. & Evans H.E. 1989. Dorsal notch of foramen magnum due to incomplete ossification of supraoccipital bone in dogs. J. Small Anim. Pract. 30 (12): 666–673. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1989.tb01911.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wielądek A. & Kupczyńska M. 2008. Occipital dysplasia in Yorkshire terrier dogs–morphometric criteria. Med. Weter. 64 (3): 365–369.Google Scholar
  27. Wright J.A. 1979. A study of the radiographic anatomy of the foramen magnum in dogs. J. Small Anim. Pract. 20 (8): 501–508. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1979.tb06756.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yahaya A., Olopade J.O. & Kwari H.D. 2013. Morphological analysis and osteometry of the foramen magnum of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anat. Histol. Embryol. 42 (2): 155–159. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2012.01178.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zaidi S.H. & Dayal S.S. 1988. Variations in the shape of foramen magnum in Indian skulls. Anat. Anz. 167 (4): 338–340. PMID: 3223599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zar J.H. 2010. Biostatistical Analysis. 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 944 pp. ISBN-13: 978-0321656865Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Slovak Academy of Sciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Kupczyńska
    • 1
  • Norbert Czubaj
    • 1
  • Karolina Barszcz
    • 1
  • Wojciech Sokołowski
    • 1
  • Michał Czopowicz
    • 2
  • Halina Purzyc
    • 3
    Email author
  • Małgorzata Dzierzęcka
    • 1
  • Wojciech Kinda
    • 4
  • Zdzisław Kiełbowicz
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Morphological SciencesWarsaw University of Life Sciences — SGGW, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and EconomicsWarsaw University of Life Sciences — SGGW, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineWrocławPoland
  4. 4.Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations