Hardpan in skeletal soils: Statistical approach to determine its depth in a cherry orchard plot
- 1 Downloads
Skeletal soils are not suitable for agriculture, and often are allocated to marginal uses such as cherry orchards for timber production. These require some agricultural practices (irrigation, soil tillage or weed control) which can contribute to the development of a hardpan. Compacted layers can adversely affect timber production, so subsoiling works are required. This study examined the effect of six years of tillage on hardpan formation in a skeletal soil by means of mechanical impedance measurements with a dynamic penetrometer cone (dynamic cone test), a method that is quick and easy to use, but can suffer from interference by stones. Mechanical impedances along the soil profile were measured in four plots differing in tillage (with or without) and drip irrigation (with or without) treatments. Exploratory data analysis together with statistical inference techniques related to linear general models were applied. The presence of a transitional layer on top of the hardpan is suggested in the non-tilled plot and soil depth that can be explored easily by roots has increased by 20 cm.
Key wordsgeneral linear models irrigation no-tillage stony soil tillage timber production
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was financially supported by the Spanish Government under the MICINN - AGL2010–2012 project (sub-program AGR). The authors are grateful to Dr Núria Cañameras for facilitating access to the cone penetrometer, and thank the anonymous reviewers for valuable useful comments.
- Athapaththu A.M.R.G. & Tsuchida T. 2014. Characterization of inherent random heterogeneity of weathered granite. Int. J. of GEOMATE 7. 1025–1032.Google Scholar
- Chaigneau L., Gourves R. & Boissier D. 2000. Compaction control with a dynamic cone penetrometer. Proc. of Int. Workshop on Compaction of Soils, Granulates and Powders, Innsbruck, pp. 103–109.Google Scholar
- Gourvès R. & Barjot R. 1995. Le penetromètre dynamique leger Panda. Comptes rendus, 11ème congrès Europeen de Mecanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations. Copenhague, vol 3, pp. 83–88.Google Scholar
- Hillel D. 1980. Fundamentals of Soil Physics. Academic Press, New York, 415 pp.Google Scholar
- ITG. 1993. Mapa geológico de España. Escala 1:50.000. Mataró. Segunda serie. IGME, Madrid, 25 pp.Google Scholar
- Langton D.D. 1999. The Panda lightweight penetrometer for soil investigation and monitoring material compaction. Ground Engng. 32: 33–37.Google Scholar
- Minitab Inc. 2007. Minitab Statistical Software, Release 15 for Windows, State College, Pennsylvania. Minitab®is a registered trademark of Minitab Inc.Google Scholar
- Pagliai M. 1998. Changes of pore system following soil compaction, pp. 186–196. In: Van den Akker J.J.H., Arvidsson J., Horn R. (eds). Proceedings of the 1st Workshop of the Concerted Action on Subsoil Compaction. Experience with the Impact and Prevention of Subsoil Compaction in the European Community, Part 2, 28–30. May. 1998. Wageningen.Google Scholar
- USDA–NRC. 2004. Soil Survey Laboratory. Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report, No. 42. Version 4.0, 700 pp.Google Scholar